Breast lesions

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  • The last three decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the understanding and treatment of breast cancer. As a result, starting shortly before the 1990s, a persistent decrease in breast cancer mortality has been documented, primarily in the United States and in several European countries. Breast cancer, however, remains an important health problem. In this book, which is mainly dedicated to nuclear medicine, experts have thoroughly reviewed the achievements made in the diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of this disease.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Surgical outcomes of borderline breast lesions detected by needle biopsy in a breast screening program

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Down-regulation of kallikrein-related peptidase 5 (KLK5) expression in breast cancer patients: a biomarker for the differential diagnosis of breast lesions...

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  • Noninvasive Breast Cancer Breast cancer develops as a series of molecular changes in the epithelial cells that lead to ever more malignant behavior. Increased use of mammography has led to more frequent diagnosis of noninvasive breast cancer. These lesions fall into two groups: ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (lobular neoplasia). The management of both entities is controversial. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) Proliferation of cytologically malignant breast epithelial cells within the ducts is termed DCIS.

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  • If a nonpalpable mammographic lesion has a low index of suspicion, mammographic follow-up in 3–6 months is reasonable. Workup of indeterminate and suspicious lesions has been rendered more complex by the advent of stereotactic biopsies. Morrow and colleagues have suggested that these procedures are indicated for lesions that require biopsy but are likely to be benign—that is, for cases in which the procedure probably will eliminate additional surgery. When a lesion is more probably malignant, open biopsy should be performed with a needle localization technique.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Biopsy interpretation of pediatric lesions" presentation of content: Central nervous system and skeletal muscle, hematopoietic system, the heart, the lung, pancreas, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, and selected head and neck, breast and reproductive system, skin.

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  • Needles: Standard disposable 22-24 gauge 1-1½-inch needles are used for plain FNAC. The length and caliber of the needle should fit the size, depth, location and the consistency of the target. For small subcutaneous lesions, one-inch 23-gauge needle is ideal while for a deep-seated breast lesion, longer and larger needle is required. Finer needles are also recommended for children, and for vascular organs like thyroid. Syringes: Standard disposable plastic syringes of 10ml are used. Syringe should be of good quality and should produce good negative pressure.

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  • An abundant oxidative lesion, 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), often directs the misincorporation of dAMP during replication. To prevent muta-tions, cells possess an enzymatic system for the removal of 8-oxoG. A key element of this system is 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg in bacteria, OGG1 in eukaryotes), which must excise 8-oxoG from 8-oxoG:C pairs but not from 8-oxoG:A.

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  • The poverty rate is the percentage of a population living in poverty and is a useful measure of economic deprivation in a neighborhood or community. Census tract poverty rates from the 2000 U.S. Census were linked to New Jersey State Cancer Registry incidence data. New Jersey census tracts were grouped by the poverty rate into three poverty area groups. The three poverty area groups were defined as follows: areas with low poverty (less than 10% of the population below the poverty level); areas with medium poverty (10 to 19.99% of the population below the poverty level);...

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  • In contrast, only three percent of women who had a negative HPV DNA test for 13 high risk types developed CIN3+ within the timeframe of the study, indicating that frequent screening of these women may be unnecessary. The researchers found that although infection with some types, such as HPV 53, 56, 59, and 68, were prone to persist for 2 years, they did not lead to lesions during the entire follow-up period. A study in Italy18 investigated the efficacy of HPV DNA testing for CIN and cervical cancers and supported the use of stand-alone HPV DNA testing as...

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  • Vaccinating girls and women before sexual debut, and therefore before exposure to HPV infection, provides an excellent opportunity to decrease the incidence of cervical cancer over time. As these vaccines protect against HPV types responsible for about 70% of cervical cancers, there will be a continued need to screen women who have been vaccinated as well as those who have not been vaccinated.

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  • Increases in breast cancer risk, relative to how long a woman has smoked or the number of cigarettes she smoked a day, have been found in several studies. However, the relationship between breast cancer and the level of smoking exposure is not as clear as it is for lung cancer. For example, people who smoke the least (or for the shortest time) have the lowest risk of lung cancer, while people who smoke the most (or for the longest time) have the highest risk. People who smoke amounts between these two extremes, have risks that fall between the two extremes.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "The mont reid surgical handbook" presents the following contents: Benign and malignant liver lesions, renal transplantation, liver transplantation, pancreas transplantation, malignant skin lesions, diseases of the breast, breast reconstruction, gastric tumors, malignant pancreas disease, colorectal cancer,... and other content.

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  • Rapid technical advances in medical imaging, including its growing application to drug/gene therapy and invasive/interventional procedures, have attracted significant interest in close integration of research in life sciences, medicine, physical sciences and engineering. This is motivated by the clinical and basic science research requirement of obtaining more detailed physiological and pathological information about the body for establishing localized genesis and progression of diseases.

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  • Neoplasms (See also Chap. 374) Back pain is the most common neurologic symptom in patients with systemic cancer and may be the presenting symptom. The cause is usually vertebral metastases. Metastatic carcinoma (breast, lung, prostate, thyroid, kidney, gastrointestinal tract), multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphomas frequently involve the spine. Cancer-related back pain tends to be constant, dull, unrelieved by rest, and worse at night. By contrast, mechanical low back pain usually improves with rest.

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  • The urgent need for computer-assisted detection of tumors and lesions in medical images becomes clear when one considers the state of affairs in X-ray film mammography for breast cancer screening. In the United States it is estimated that there are currently more than 50 million women over the age of 40 at risk of contracting breast cancer.

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  • Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology/ Biopsy (FNAC/FNAB) is now a widely accepted diagnostic procedure, which has largely replaced open biopsy. This method is applicable to lesions that are easily palpable, for example swellings in Thyroid, Breast, superficial Lymph node etc. Imaging techniques, mainly ultra-sonography and computed tomography, offer an opportunity for guided FNAC of deeper structures. The practice of diagnostic cytology needs proper training of the laboratory personnel including cytopathologist, cytotechnologist and cytotechnician.

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  • Table 87-5 Hereditable (Autosomal Dominant) Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes Syndrom e Distribu Histolo nant Malig Associated Lesions tion of Polyps gic Type Potential Familial adenomatous polyposis Large intestine a Adenom on Comm None Gardner's Large Adenom Comm Osteomas, syndrome and intestines small a on fibromas, lipomas, epidermoid cysts, ampullary cancers, congenital hypertrophy retinal of pigment epithelium Turcot's syndrome Large intestine a Adenom on Comm tumors Brain Nonpoly Large Adenom on Comm al Endometri and ovarian posis syndrome int...

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