The concept of governance is not a new one but nowadays we hear words as corporate governance, organizational governance or good governance frequently. Actually corporate governance or, as defined in ISO FDIS 26000, organizational governance is the system by which an organization makes and implements decisions in pursuit of its objectives. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented).
As the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision has pointed out, it has become
increasingly important to look beyond the traditional earnings and economic
value effects and assess indirect interest rate effects as well. Taking a broader
view of the potential earnings impact of changing interest rates, banks also
need to take into consideration the growing share of (interest-sensitive) fee-
based ﬁ nancial services (loan servicing, asset securitization programs, pay-
For the 50 industrial companies in the S&P index, the ratio of the total market capitalization
to net earnings is 18.4. Aggregate earnings and this price-earnings ratio imply an
estimate for the aggregate market capitalization of 1.62 times GNP. This is slightly higher
than Sloan’s (1936) estimate, which was based on a broader subset of industrial companies.
This lecture and the following present some technical details of the language to give a slightly broader view of C++’s basic facilities and to provide a more systematic view of those facilities. This also acts as a review of many of the notions presented so far, such as types, functions, and initialization, and provides an opportunity to explore our tool without adding new programming techniques or concepts.
In the 31 chapters that have preceded this one, I’ve explored a process for software engineering that encompasses management procedures and technical methods, basic concepts and principles, specialized techniques, peopleoriented activities and tasks that are amenable to automation, paper-and-pencil notation, and software tools. In this concluding chapter I’ll take a broader view and consider where we’ve been and where we’re going from a more philosophical perspective.
Resembling a large-scale comprehensive building design, an encyclopedia necessitates
the collaborative efforts of countless individuals and may take considerable time to
complete. It seems long ago that Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers invited me to edit a two-
volume encyclopedia about 20th-century architecture. In 1998, I was teaching the history
of architecture in a landmark 1890s Richardsonian Romanesque building at Lake Forest
College, a small liberal arts college north of Chicago.
Recent research suggests that corporate governance reforms in the non-
financial sector may not be appropriate for banks and other financial sector firms.
This is based on the view that no single corporate governance structure is appropriate
for all industry sectors, and that the application of governance models to particular
industry sectors should take account of the institutional dynamics of the specific
We view this increasing inverse correlation ofmotion and shot length as an amplifying
effect. That is, short shots likely increase viewer response to ﬁlms and ﬁlm segments, forcing
observer eye movements to quickly reevaluate each new visual depiction and increasing
heart rate and other bodily responses (Carruthers and Taggart 1973). Addingmoremotion
to these short shots is likely to increase viewer response all the more.We suggest that this
increasing correlationmay help to couple attention to broader physiological responses.
During the nineteenth century, which has already receded far enough into the perspective of the past for us to
be able to take a comprehensive view of it, the advance guard of the human race found itself in a position
entirely different from that ever before occupied by it. Through the knowledge of cosmic, animal, and social
evolution gradually accumulated by the laborious and careful studies of special students in every department
of historical research and scientific experiment, a broader and higher state of self-consciousness was attained.
Although the results of many recent research impacts
studies support the view that investments in agricultural
research continue to generate attractive rates of return, some
people are uncomfortable with the limitations of the
economic framework. Their concern is understandable,
because economic rate-of-returns analysis is, in some ways,
poorly suited for evaluating an activity (agricultural
research) whose primary outputs (technological innovations)
are essentially a means of achieving broader welfare goals
that cannot easily be measured, much less valued.
increased rates of obesity have become a public health concern
because obesity is associated with chronic disease and
adverse health outcomes (Institute of Medicine 2005). Furthermore,
because obesity is now a characteristic of populations
and not only of individuals, researchers, government
health organizations, and advocacy groups characterize
obesity as an epidemic (Institute of Medicine 2005, 2006a;
World Health Organization 2003).
Many risks that we face on a daily basis may be unavoidable, so there is an expectation
by individuals that the level of risk is being managed and reduced to safe levels
through evidence-based risk assessments and public health interventions. There has
been a growing recognition that risks need to be viewed in their public health context
to ensure that the most important risks are prioritized and addressed. Under a
broader public health imperative, risk assessments are used as an important process to
quantify the probability of harmful effects to individuals, sub-populations (eg.
This report is not a “how to guide.” It is a vehicle to present the initial work we have done
toward the development of the “roadmap” previously discussed. Organizations looking for
assistance in building or improving incident management capabilities should look to our
other publications and available training as outlined at our main web site for CSIRT Development,
Much of our initial work to date has been within the CSIRT community. This report, although
applicable to broader incident management processes, is written from a CSIRT perspective.