Chapter 9 - Purpose of budgets. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Purpose of budgets, behavioral aspects of budgeting, advantages arising out of staff participation, factors affecting behaviour.
Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a basis
Scales concisely show how a theoretical construct has been empirically measured. Their
reliability and validity ratios give a notion of the quality of the scale. Since most scales are
developed by the respective authors and are therefore in a first version, they can be used as a
basis for supplementation and further development.
A maintenance culture, which means that what is built is maintained,
does not yet exist in Latin America. There is no reason to expect social
funds to ensure maintenance better than any of the other ministries. If
this culture is instituted, then projects will be sustained, both by the
ministries and by the social funds.
Citizen participation is emphasized greatly to achieve sustainable out-
comes of projects. There is nothing like money to sustain a project.
Maintaining a close policy dialogue with the partner
government is a central feature of both Budgetary Aid
and Sector Programmes. The key point being that
these aid modalities achieve their objectives by
adopting governments’ policies, budget systems and
service delivery structures. Consistent dialogue –
supported sometimes by external audits and reviews –
represents the main vehicle for monitoring the
effectiveness of government systems and ensuring
that they are continuously improved.
The United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 established gender
equality as a basic principle in development cooperation. Gender equality refers to equality of
opportunity, rights, distribution of resources and benefits, responsibilities for women and men in
private and public life and in the value accorded to male and female characteristics. Promotion of
gender equality is not only concerned with women’s issues, but also covers broader actions to be taken
by both women and men.
Evidence shows that social media are already affecting the ways in which people find, create,
share and learn knowledge, through rich media opportunities and in collaboration with each
other. These practices are at the core of Education and Training, as they promote the
competences needed for future jobs and enable new tools for educational institutions to
transform themselves into places that support the competences needed for participation in a
A substantial part of New Zealand’s economic growth in the ﬁ rst half of the last decade reﬂ ected
high rates of growth in labour utilisation. However, the average hours worked per capita has fallen
by around 3 percent since 2005.
New Zealand’s labour utilisation rate was higher than four of the ﬁ ve OECD countries that we
have chosen to benchmark New Zealand against (the ‘comparator’ countries2
) in 2008, reﬂ ecting
a combination of high participation rates, low unemployment, and a high average number of hours
worked relative to other OECD countries.
The Navy Enterprise has evolved over the past decade to achieve various objectives from improving efficiencies through lean, six-sigma efforts to producing the workforce of the future. This evaluation of the participation of organizations within the Navy Enterprise in the Planning, Programming, Budgeting and Execution (PPBE)
Public expenditure on health is financed mainly through a combination of
contributions and general tax revenue transfers to the health insurance scheme.
There has been increasing reliance on the latter in recent years.
Participation in the health insurance scheme is compulsory for all citizens
living in Hungary, and opting out is not permitted. Based on the current legal
framework, coverage should theoretically be 100%, but the health insurance
status of approximately 4% of the population is unclear. The benefits package
is comprehensive but not exhaustive.
Over time, social funds have proven that they effectively can coordinate
among entities, channel resources, develop social infrastructure, pro-
mote the participation of local authorities and the community, and inte-
grate the private sector and civil society in their programs. Their trans-
parency in operations is widely acknowledged and has resulted in
financial and technical support from international entities. Impacts of
social funds are commensurate with the budgets that are allocated to
Over the next 10 years, federal spending on crop insurance is projected to outpace spending on
traditional commodity programs by about one-third, which might capture the attention of budget
cutters looking for potential sources of savings. Insurance companies, farm groups, and some
members of Congress are concerned that additional reductions in federal support will negatively
impact the financial health of the crop insurance industry and possibly jeopardize the delivery of
The budget deficit equivalent to total government spending
tax minus total government spending revenue.If
income tax independently, but depend on the net
the percentage of the labour force without a job but registered as being willing and available for work
those people holding a job or registered as being willing and available for work
the percentage of the population of working age declaring themselves to be in the labour force
Sustaining IEC to increase men’s participation faces obstacles related to negative individual
attitudes, reluctance among decision-makers to budget IEC activities, lack of staff training,
and scarce resources. Programs need to undertake strong communication programs and be
able to demonstrate how IEC activities affect men’s participation in reproductive health.
This is a print on demand edition of a hard to find publication. Households participating in the Food Stamp Program are increasingly headed by a single parent or two working parents. As this trend continues, more low-income households may find it difficult to allocate the time needed to prepare meals that fit within a limited budget and meet dietary requirements. This study finds that household time resources significantly affect how much time is allocated to preparing food.
Now in its 21st year, NITRD is the oldest and largest of the small number of formal Federal programs that
engage multiple agencies. As required by the High-Performance Computing Act of 1991 (P.L. 102-194), the
Next Generation Internet Research Act of 1998 (P.L. 105-305), and the America COMPETES (Creating
Opportunities to Meaningfully Promote Excellence in Technology, Education, and Science) Act of 2007 (P.L.
The Mali Economic Management Credit supports the government’s
efforts to improve women’s access to land and financial services. It has
facilitated the preparation of an action plan that was included in the
overall financial sector action plan approved in 1998, which resulted
in budget support for women’s income-generation activities. The
operation has also facilitated and increased women’s access to land in
the Office du Niger region; and raised public awareness of women’s
legal rights and the benefits of women’s participation in the develop-