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  • Given a connected, undirected graph, a spanning tree of that graph is a subgraph that is a tree and connects all the vertices together. A single graph can have many different spanning trees. We can also assign a weight to each edge, which is a number representing how unfavorable it is, and use this to assign a weight to a spanning tree by computing the sum of the weights of the edges in that spanning tree.

    ppt97p locnp0209 11-06-2011 98 8   Download

  • The definition of a tree accepted by science and the forestry industry is “A woody plant (arboreal perennial) usually with a single columnar stem capable of reaching six metres in height”. Less than six metres (21ft) of potential height is regarded as a shrub.This definition is not absolute; gardeners contest the height threshold, some preferring five metres (17ft) and others choosing a threshold of three metres (13ft). It is likely that bonsai enthusiasts would entirely dismiss any figures suggested.

    pdf361p thienbinh1311 13-12-2012 17 4   Download

  • Given a collection of records (training set ) Each record contains a set of attributes, one of the attributes is the class. Find a model for class attribute as a function of the values of other attributes. Goal: previously unseen records should be assigned a class as accurately as possible. A test set is used to determine the accuracy of the model. Usually, the given data set is divided into training and test sets, with training set used to build the model and test set used to validate it.

    ppt101p trinh02 18-01-2013 43 8   Download

  • This research on lightning protection systems for trees was established for the purpose of developing a better understanding of lightning protection systems specifically designed to be fitted to trees. Coming from a background in sylviculture my initial concern was to enable important and intrinsically valuable trees to be protected from damage resulting from lightning strikes. However it quickly became apparent that the protection of nearby structures and buildings that might be liable to collateral damage in the event of strike was of equal significance.

    pdf7p dee07_bk 24-07-2010 58 7   Download

  • We present a Bayesian nonparametric model for estimating tree insertion grammars (TIG), building upon recent work in Bayesian inference of tree substitution grammars (TSG) via Dirichlet processes. Under our general variant of TIG, grammars are estimated via the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm that uses a context free grammar transformation as a proposal, which allows for cubic-time string parsing as well as tree-wide joint sampling of derivations in the spirit of Cohn and Blunsom (2010).

    pdf5p nghetay_1 07-04-2013 17 3   Download

  • In recent years, error mining approaches were developed to help identify the most likely sources of parsing failures in parsing systems using handcrafted grammars and lexicons. However the techniques they use to enumerate and count n-grams builds on the sequential nature of a text corpus and do not easily extend to structured data.

    pdf9p nghetay_1 07-04-2013 14 2   Download

  • In this paper I present a Master’s thesis proposal in syntax-based Statistical Machine Translation. I propose to build discriminative SMT models using both tree-to-string and tree-to-tree approaches. Translation and language models will be represented mainly through the use of Tree Automata and Tree Transducers. These formalisms have important representational properties that makes them well-suited for syntax modeling. nce it’s u

    pdf5p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 19 2   Download

  • Current tree-to-tree models suffer from parsing errors as they usually use only 1best parses for rule extraction and decoding. We instead propose a forest-based tree-to-tree model that uses packed forests. The model is based on a probabilistic synchronous tree substitution grammar (STSG), which can be learned from aligned forest pairs automatically. The decoder finds ways of decomposing trees in the source forest into elementary trees using the source projection of STSG while building target forest in parallel.

    pdf9p hongphan_1 14-04-2013 23 1   Download

  • This paper describes an ongoing effort to parse the Hebrew Bible. The parser consults the bracketing information extracted from the cantillation marks of the Masoetic text. We first constructed a cantillation treebank which encodes the prosodic structures of the text. It was found that many of the prosodic boundaries in the cantillation trees correspond, directly or indirectly, to the phrase boundaries of the syntactic trees we are trying to build.

    pdf7p hongvang_1 16-04-2013 12 1   Download

  • While the generative view of language processing builds bigger units out of smaller ones by means of rewriting steps, the axiomatic view eliminates invalid linguistic structures out of a set of possible structures by means of wellformedness principles. We present a generator based on the axiomatic view and argue that when combined with a TAG-like grammar and a flat semantics, this axiomatic view permits avoiding drawbacks known to hold either of top-down or of bottom-up generators.

    pdf8p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 12 1   Download

  • Linguists, including computational linguists, have always been fond of talking about trees. In this paper, we outline a theory of linguistic structure which talks about talking about trees; we call this theory Description theory (D-theory). While important issues must be resolved before a complete picture of D-theory emerges (and also before we can build programs which utilize it), we believe that this theory will ultimately provide a framework for explaining the syntax and semantics of natural language in a manner which is intrinsically computational. ...

    pdf8p bungio_1 03-05-2013 17 1   Download

  • This paper presents an implemented, psychologically plausible parsing model for Government Binding theory grammars. I make use of two main ideas: (1) a generalization of the licensing relations of [Abney, 1986] allows for the direct encoding of certain principles of grammar (e.g. Theta Criterion, Case Filter) which drive structure building; (2) the working space of the parser is constrained to the domain determined by a Tree Adjoining Grammar elementary tree. All dependencies and constraints are locaiized within this bounded structure. ...

    pdf8p bungio_1 03-05-2013 14 1   Download

  • Add seamless, interactive, user-controlled delivery to your Flash applications. This book builds upon your understanding of basic ActionScript (AS) syntax with the foundational skills that you need to use XML in Flash applications and AS2 or AS3 to migrate your existing applications. Beginning with an introduction to XML, XML parsing methods, and a short introduction to AS2 you learn how to create a universal XML load/onload Class as well as a universal XHTML parser. Then you learn how to use Components using XML as the data source, including the menu, menubar, datagrid and tree component.

    pdf335p ken333 06-07-2012 83 13   Download

  • Within a sketch you can create 2D-wireframe geometry which can be used to produce Solids or surfaces and is represented by a solid line font. 2D-construction wireframe geometry can also be created which is used as an aid to produce the solid 2Dwireframe geometry. To position and control the size of the sketch, geometric and positional constraints are used which are displayed in green. A Sketch Node will be attached to the Specification Tree in which the Sketch Axis, Geometry and Constraints details are held.

    pdf65p dngtech 07-12-2009 82 10   Download

  • With the vast and ever increasing demands made upon materials which are the products of cultivated fields, for food, for apparel, for furnishings and for cordage, better soil management must grow more important as populations multiply.

    pdf22p asus1122 24-10-2012 34 6   Download

  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành toán học tạp chí Department of Mathematic dành cho các bạn yêu thích môn toán học đề tài: Building Graphs from Colored Trees...

    pdf18p thulanh7 04-10-2011 27 5   Download

  • This project supports the development of crops with small profit in central Vietnam, developing high-value sawlogs glue for the wood processing industry of Vietnam's solid. Project to build scientific capacity of the Forest Science Institute of Vietnam (FSIV) to breed varieties suitable for acacia sawlog production, research and silvicultural applications to support sustainable forest and profitable.

    pdf16p xau_la 10-02-2012 40 5   Download

  • The central panel of the northern and southern walls contained a quadrant painted with xenia, while the wall of the ground floor, or west, was an image of the river Sarno as penates placed between two festoons of flowers. The image was described as a bearded god wearing a crown of reeds. He was sitting on the ground under the shade of a sacred tree. Resting on his left elbow on an overturned urn, he held a reed in his left hand, and his right hand rested on the corresponding knee. He was nude from the upper part of his...

    pdf122p can_thai 10-12-2012 65 4   Download

  • Long-term survival of outdoor sculpture will be affected by use of the site, adjacent buildings, trees, roads, playgrounds, ponds and similar features. Determine who—pedestrians and pets, cyclists, skateboarders—and how many will use the area and how they will use it. Susan Carr, director of public art, Arts Commission of Greater Toledo, has learned to include users in the mix of design considerations. “Our Major Ritual by Beverly Pepper suffered serious damage from skateboarders. It’s taken a lot of time, dollars and public relations to correct the damage.

    pdf29p yasuyidol 01-04-2013 25 3   Download

  • Participatory mapping exercises began during the very first days of the survey with two women and men groups of villagers using two basic maps, assisted by two research members to explain the objectives of the exercise. They facilitated the process through discussion with villagers about which resources and land types to add to the basic maps. These maps were then put together to build a single map representing the perception of the overall community. During all our onsite activities, the map was available to any villager for adding features and making corrections.

    pdf39p thieubaotrang 23-04-2013 19 3   Download

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