Calcium intake

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  • This book will change the way you think about bone density and osteoporosis. The weakening of bones is often viewed as a calcium defi ciency, when actually it’s an imbalance between calcium intake and excretion. As nutrition professor Amy Joy Lanou, Ph.D., and noted medical journalist Michael Castleman eloquently reveal, diets rich in animal protein, including meat and dairy, add acid to the blood. This acid accelerates osteoporosis by depleting bones of calcium, phosphorus, and sodium.

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  • Table 47-1 Causes of Hypercalcemia Excessive PTH production Primary hyperparathyroidism (adenoma, hyperplasia, rarely carcinoma) Tertiary hyperparathyroidism (long-term stimulation of PTH secretion in renal insufficiency) Ectopic PTH secretion (very rare) Inactivating mutations in the CaSR (FHH) Alterations in CaSR function (lithium therapy) Hypercalcemia of malignancy Overproduction of PTHrP (many solid tumors) Lytic skeletal metastases (breast, myeloma) Excessive 1,25(OH)2D production Granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, silicosis) Lymphomas Vitamin D intoxic...

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  • Low intakes of fiber tend to reflect low intakes of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables. Low intakes of calcium  tend to reflect low intakes of milk and milk products. Low intakes of vitamins A (as carotenoids) and C and magne­ sium tend to reflect low intakes of fruits and vegetables. Selecting fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low­fat and fat­free milk and milk products in the amounts suggested by the USDA Food Guide and the DASH Eating Plan will provide adequate amounts of these nutrients.

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  • A clustering of the disease among close relatives has also been shown, although there is no consensus on which inheritable genetic defects are involved. In spite of extensive research, reliable findings on risk factors relating to lifestyle, diet or the environment remain elusive. Possible lifestyle risk factors are high intakes of α-linolenic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid in vegetables and dairy products) and calcium.

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  • Vegetarians of all types can achieve recommended nutrient intakes through careful selection of foods. These individuals should give special attention to their intakes of protein, iron, and vitamin B12, as well as calcium and vitamin D if avoiding milk products. In addition, vegetarians could select only nuts, seeds, and legumes from the meat and beans group, or they could include eggs if so desired. At the 2,000­calorie level, they could choose about 1.5 ounces of nuts and  2 /3 cup legumes instead of 5.

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  • Table 47-2 Causes of Hypocalcemia Low Parathyroid Hormone Levels (Hypoparathyroidism) Parathyroid agenesis Isolated DiGeorge syndrome Parathyroid destruction Surgical Radiation Infiltration by metastases or systemic diseases Autoimmune Reduced parathyroid function Hypomagnesemia Activating CaSR mutations High Parathyroid Hormone Levels (Secondary Hyperparathyroidism) Vitamin D deficiency or impaired 1,25(OH)2D production/action Nutritional vitamin D deficiency (poor intake or absorption) Renal insufficiency with impaired 1,25(OH)2D production Vitamin D resistance, inclu...

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  • Table 71-2 Deficiencies and Toxicities of Metals Element Deficiency Toxicity Tolerable Upper (Dietary) Intake Level Boron No biologic Developmental defects, male 20 mg/d function determined sterility, (extrapolated from data) animal testicular atrophy Calcium Reduced bone Renal insufficiency (milk-alkalai syndrome), mg/d 2500 (milk- Element Deficiency Toxicity Tolerable Upper (Dietary) Intake Level mass, osteoporosis nephrolithiasis, iron absorption impaired alkalai) Copper Anemia, growth retardation, keratinization Nausea, vomiting, 10 mg/d defective dia...

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  • Assessing nutrient status of animals. After registration, the animal’s daily feed intake, daily milk yield and milk fat percent are recorded. In addition, the animal’s body weight is also record- ed. Based on milk yield, milk fat percent, body weight and the pregnancy status, the animal’s nutrient requirement is computed by the software. Considering the prevailing feeding practices (feed intake), consumption of nutrients, e.g. energy (TDN; total digestible nutrients), protein, calcium and phosphorus is assessed.

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  • Efforts may be warranted to promote increased dietary intakes of potassium, fiber, and possibly vitamin E, regard­ less of age; increased intakes of calcium and possibly vitamins A (as carotenoids) and C and magnesium by adults; efforts are warranted to increase intakes of calcium and possibly magnesium by children age 9 years or older. Efforts may be especially warranted to improve the dietary intakes of adolescent females in general. Food sources of these nutrients are shown in appendix B.

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