More than twenty years after the idea of this Carotenoids book series was first discussed, we
finally reach the end of the project with Volume 5, which covers the functions and actions of
carotenoids in human nutrition and health. In 1971, in Isler’s book Carotenoids, functions of
carotenoids and vitamin A were covered in just two chapters.
Mobile telephone technology should be used (where coverage allows this) to
automatically download data centrally, followed by automated QA checks and input to a
database. Data should be made available over the internet, updated on at least a daily
Locally based staff should visually check systems at least once a month and make a
preliminary investigation of any anomalous results. Calibration and basic maintenance
must be carried out during an annual visit by specialist staff.
Installation and site characteristics should follow ECN protocols (Sykes & Lane, 1996).
In heavy-duty applications, where fuel economy is a top priority, lean deN Ox systems using a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) approach are an interesting alternative. Such systems can reduce engine-out N Ox by approximately one order of magnitude. This permits the engine to be calibrated at the high-eﬃciency/low-PM boundary of the trade-oﬀ curve (see Fig. 1.11, early injection angle). The drawback of this approach is, of course, the need for an additional ﬂuid distribution infrastructure (most likely urea).