The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, World Health Organization)
[ 1 ] estimated an incidence of 6,617,855 cancers around the world in 2008 with 4,219,626
deaths associated with this disease (IARC 2011).
The cancer registry is an essential part of any rational programme of can-
cer control. Its data can be used in a wide variety of areas of cancer control
ranging from etiological research, through primary and secondary preven-
tion to health-care planning and patient care. Although most cancer reg-
istries are not obliged to do more than provide the basis for such uses of the
data, they possess the potential for developing and supporting important
research programmes making use of the information they collect....
Irene J Higginson MD PhD is Professor of Palliative Care and Policy and Head
of the Department of Palliative Care and Policy, King’s College, London.
She qualified in medicine from Nottingham University, and has worked in
wide-ranging medical and university positions, including radiotherapy and
oncology, in-patient and home hospice care, at the Department of Health
(England) and various universities.
The aim of this chapter is to summarize and evaluate the different
mechanisms and catabolic mediators involved in cancer cachexia and ageing
sarcopenia since they may represent targets for future promising clinical
investigations. Cancer cachexia is a syndrome characterized by a marked weight
loss, anorexia, asthenia and anemia. In fact, many patients who die with advanced
cancer suffer from cachexia. The degree of cachexia is inversely correlated
with the survival time of the patient and it always implies a poor prognosis.
The end stage of cachexia, marasmus is a state in which virtually all available body fat stores have been exhausted due to starvation. Conditions that produce marasmus in developed countries tend to be chronic and indolent, such as cancer, chronic pulmonary disease, and anorexia nervosa.
Marasmus is easy to detect because of the patient's starved appearance. The diagnosis is based on severe fat and muscle wastage resulting from prolonged calorie deficiency.
Câu: "trừ giai đoạn terminal" có lẽ không đúng, và statement "các cách này...không thể dùng cho cancer đuợc" có lẽ cũng không đúng. Vì mechanism cuả anorexia và sự tăng trưởng (hoặc chết) cuả tế bào ung thư theo các cơ chế hoàn toàn khác nhau. Dù rằng các studies trong hơn hai mươi năm qua cho thấy có liên hệ chăt chẽ giưã phản ứng cuả cơ thể (ăn mất ngon) và ung thư (trong một bài trước đã trích dẫn, bài trong Clinical Nutrition - Europe, chẳng hạn). ...