Cancer biology

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  • There have been a significant number of advances in the field of cancer research since the first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published in 1981. These include advances in defining the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors, the regulation of gene expression, and the ‘‘-omics’’ techniquesofgenomics, proteomics,and metabolomics, among others.

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  • In its fifth edition, Cancer Medicine has been named eponymously to honor its founding editors James F. Holland and Emil Frei III, two giants of medical oncology. The Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine reflects their dedication to innovative, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary care of cancer patients, as well as their belief in the importance of grounding such care in a more fundamental understanding of cancer biology. It is to their vision and the example that they have established over the last four decades that this book is dedicated.

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  • In the past 15 years, molecular biologists and geneticists have uncovered some of the most basic mechanisms by means of which normal stem cells in a certain organ or tissue develop into cancerous tumors. This biological knowledge serves as a basis for various models of carcinogenesis.

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  • The spermine analogue N1,N11-diethylnorspermine (DENSPM) efficiently depletes the cellular pools of putrescine, spermidine and spermine by down-regulating the activity of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and up-regulating the activity of the catabolic enzyme spermidine/ spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). In the breast cancer cell line L56Br-C1, treatment with 10 lM DENSPM induced SSAT activity 60 and 240-fold at 24 and 48 h after seeding, respectively, which resulted in polyamine depletion. ...

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  • We investigated the role ofb3Gal-T5, a member of the b1,3galactosyltransferase (b1,3Gal-T) family, in cancer-associated glycosylation, focusing on the expression of sialyl-Lewis a (sLe a , the epitope of CA19.9 antigen), poly N-acetyllactosamines, and sialyl-Lewis x (sLe x )antigen.A clone permanently expressing an antisense fragment of b3Gal-T5 was obtained from the human pancreas adeno-carcinoma cell line BxPC3 and characterized. Bothb1,3Gal-T activity and sLe a expression are dramatically impaired in the clone. ...

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  • HIC1(hypermethylated in cancer 1) is a transcriptional repressor containing fiveKru¨ppel-likeC2H2zinc fingers and an N-terminal dimerization and autonomous repression domain called BTB/POZ. Here, we demonstrate that full-length HIC1 proteins are modified both in vivo andin vitro with O-linkedN-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). This is a highly dynamic glycosylation found within the cytosolic and the nuclear compartments of eukaryotes. Analysis of [ 3 H]Gal-labeled tryptic peptides indicates that HIC1 has three major sites forO-GlcNAc glycosylation....

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Minireview cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: microRNAs mature with help from cancer biology...

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  • Cancer can be defined as a disease in which a group of abnormal cells grow uncontrollably by disregarding the normal rules of cell division. Normal cells are constantly subject to signals that dictate whether the cell should divide, differentiate into another cell or die. Cancer cells develop a degree of autonomy from these signals, resulting in uncontrolled growth and proliferation. If this proliferation is allowed to continue and spread, it can be fatal. In fact, almost 90% of cancer-related deaths are due to tumour spreading – a process called metastasis....

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  • Tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is a protein found to be overexpressed in prostate and breast cancer due to gene amplification. However, its physio-logical function remains under investigation. In the present study, we inves-tigated the response of the LNCaP human prostate carcinoma cell line to deregulation of TPD52 expression.

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  • The population of Western countries is aging, and cancer in older aged persons is becoming increasingly common. The management of these neoplasms is a novel problem. Direct information on the outcome of cancer prevention and of cytotoxic chemotherapy in older individuals is scarce, especially for those aged 80 and over, and it is not clear whether the same process should direct medical decisions in younger and older persons. It is reasonable to assume that the benefits of cancer prevention and treatment diminish and the dangers increase with age.

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  • Over the last three decades, knowledge on the molecular biology of human cancers has vastly expanded. A host of genes and proteins involved in cancer development and progression have been defined and many mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and even tissue level have been, at least partly, elucidated. Insights have also been gained into the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis by chemical, physical, and biological agents and into inherited susceptibility to cancer. Accordingly, Part I of the book presents many of the molecules and mechanisms generally important in human cancers.

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  • This volume is the first book-length survey of caveolae and lipid rafts. Interest has developed rapidly in the role of these surface microdomains in such diverse fields as transmembrane signaling, cell locomotion, vascular relaxation, senescence, and the uptake and exit from cells of viruses and bacteria. Individual chapters in this volume cover areas as diverse as the forces that induce and maintain membrane invaginations, and the clinical relevance of multiprotein complexes at the cell surface, defects in which are associated with cancer, and Alzheimer’s and prion-dependent diseases....

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  • Clinical course of CLL is variable. Recently, progress has been made in the identification of biological markers that could predict disease progression. Particularly, the expression of unmutated Ig genes, some cytogenetic abnormalities like 17p and 11q deletions and the expression of the zeta-associated protein 70 (ZAP-70) are associated to a poor prognosis.

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  • Cell culture is practiced extensively throughout the world today. The techniques required to allow cells to grow and be maintained outside the body have been developed throughout the 20th century. In the 50 years since the publication of the first human cancer cell line, HeLa (1), thousands of cell lines representing most of the spectrum of human cancer have been derived. These have provided tools to study in depth the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types and have helped enormously in our understanding of normal as well as cancer cell physiology.

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  • Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal human malignancies with extremely poor prognosis making it the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The molecular mechanisms of pancreatic carcinogenesis are not well understood. The major focus of these two books is towards the understanding of the basic biology of pancreatic carcinogenesis, identification of newer molecular targets and the development of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.

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  • Over the past 20 years, technological advances in molecular biology have proven invaluable to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human cancer. The application of molecular technology to the study of cancer has not only led to advances in tumor diagnosis, but has also provided markers for the assessment of prognosis and disease progression. The aim of Molecular Analysis of Cancer is to provide a comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date techniques for the detection of molecular changes in human cancer.

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  • Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and its treatment was constricted to surgery for confined state and androgen ablation for advanced disease until new options have become available. The present book covers a broad range of novel aspects of prostate cancer diagnosis, treatment and patient care, as well as new research on relevant cell biology.

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  • There is growing evidence on the importance of studies focusing on mechanisms and strategies leading to cancer prevention. The plethora of approaches include regulation of oxidative stress using antioxidant therapies, carefully balanced diets and living habits, epidemiological evidence and molecular approaches on the role of key biological molecules such as antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, proteins and naturally occurring free radical scavengers as well as controversial results and clinical applications. These are some of the topics that this book highlights.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 80. Cancer Cell Biology and Angiogenesis Cancer Cell Biology and Angiogenesis: Introduction Two characteristic features define a cancer: unregulated cell growth and tissue invasion/metastasis. Unregulated cell growth without invasion is a feature of benign neoplasms, or new growths. Cancer is a synonym for malignant neoplasm. Cancers of epithelial tissues are called carcinomas; cancers of nonepithelial (mesenchymal) tissues are called sarcomas. Cancers arising from hematopoietic or lymphoid cells are called leukemias or lymphomas.

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  • A clustering of the disease among close relatives has also been shown, although there is no consensus on which inheritable genetic defects are involved. In spite of extensive research, reliable findings on risk factors relating to lifestyle, diet or the environment remain elusive. Possible lifestyle risk factors are high intakes of α-linolenic acid (a polyunsaturated fatty acid in vegetables and dairy products) and calcium.

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