Cancer Chemoprevention Chemoprevention involves the use of specific natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenesis before the development of invasive malignancy.
Cancer develops through an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes that are potential points of intervention to prevent cancer. The initial changes are termed initiation. The alteration can be inherited or acquired through the action of physical, infectious, or chemical carcinogens.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: Acceptability of cancer chemoprevention trials: impact of the design...
Chemoprevention β-Carotene and cis-retinoic acid can lead to the regression of leukoplakia. However, cis-retinoic acid does not reduce the incidence of second primaries
Complications from treatment of head and neck cancer are usually correlated to the extent of surgery and exposure of normal tissue structures to radiation. Currently, the extent of surgery has been limited or completely replaced by chemotherapy and radiation therapy as the primary approach. Acute complications of radiation include mucositis and dysphagia.
Chemoprevention of Breast Cancer Hormonal manipulation is being tested in the primary prevention of breast cancer. Tamoxifen is an antiestrogen with partial estrogen agonistic activity in some tissues, such as endometrium and bone. One of its actions is to upregulate transforming growth factor β, which decreases breast cell proliferation. In randomized placebo-controlled trials to assess tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, tamoxifen reduced the number of new breast cancers in the opposite breast by more than a third.
Chemoprevention of Cancers of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Smoking causes diffuse epithelial injury in the head, neck, esophagus, and lung. Patients cured of squamous cell cancers of the lung, esophagus, head, and neck are at risk (as high as 5% per year) of developing second cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of cigarette smoking does not markedly decrease the cured cancer patient's risk of second malignancy, even though it does lower the cancer risk in those who have never developed a malignancy.
In the last 20 years, a number of epidemiological studies have shown that tumor formation and
incidence of cardiovascular diseases are inversely related to the intake of fruit and vegetables
(Verhoeven et al., 1996). One group of vegetables that has been widely approved for its benefi cial
effects on human health are the vegetables from the family Brassicaceae (= Cruciferae). The family
Brassicaceae is a large group, having about 3000 species in 350 genera, including several types of
edible plants, which are sometimes referred to as “the cabbage family.
Support groups led by
our social workers are a good place to exchange information
and share experiences with other people in similar situations,
which can make it easier to cope. Our social workers also help
you find the practical help you might need, such as financial
assistance or tips on managing side effects. All of CancerCare’s
services, offered by telephone, online, and face to face, are
completely free of charge.
By talking with your children honestly and helping them
express their emotions, you make it easier for them to feel
safe and secure.
Repeat cycles of treatment with docetaxel are not recommended if the disease recurs after
completion of the planned course of chemotherapy15
A corticosteroid such as dexamethasone (0.5 mg daily) daily is recommended as third-line hor-
monal therapy after androgen withdrawal and anti-androgen therapy for men with hormone-
refractory prostate cancer.
Men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer shown to have extensive metastases in the spine (for
example, on a bone scan) should have spinal MRI if they develop any spinal related symptoms.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Anti-cancer and potential chemopreventive actions of ginseng by activating Nrf2 (NFE2L2) anti-oxidative stress/anti-inflammatory pathways...
Preparations derived from Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegl. mycelium are worldwide used as dietary supplements
containing compounds active as immune system enhancers, demonstrating chemopreventive and
anticancer activity. L. edodes mycelium enriched with organic forms of selenium like selenized yeast possess
putative, higher cancer preventive properties. The objective of this study was to test the effect of
enrichment in selenium on antioxidant, reducing and free radical scavenging activity of water and alcohol
extracts from mycelium of L. edodes (Berk.).
Selenium, in the form of selenocysteine, is a component of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which serves to protect proteins, cell membranes, lipids, and nucleic acids from oxidant molecules. As such, selenium is being actively studied as a chemopreventive agent against certain cancers, such as prostate. Selenocysteine is also found in the deiodinase enzymes, which mediate the deiodination of thyroxine to triiodothyronine (Chap. 335).