The potential value of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a predictor of malignancy has
now been widely recognised. The concept of ANNs dates back to the early part of the 20th
century; however, their latest resurrection started in earnest in the 1980s when they were
applied to many problems in the areas of pattern recognition, control, and optimisation.
According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer continues to take
a devastating toll. Among women in the United States, cancer is the
second-leading cause of death after heart disease. Medical researchers
fighting against cancer have made significant progress, however. In
recent years, cancer incidence rates have been stable, and—although
the annual rate of decline in cancer death rates among men have been
twice as large as the declines in women—mortality has decreased for
ten of the top 15 cancers in women.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and its treatment was constricted to surgery for confined state and androgen ablation for advanced disease until new options have become available. The present book covers a broad range of novel aspects of prostate cancer diagnosis, treatment and patient care, as well as new research on relevant cell biology.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về hóa học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Identification of a biomarker panel using a multiplex proximity ligation assay improves accuracy of pancreatic cancer diagnosis
This book considers diagnosis and treatment of abdominal and thoracic aortic
aneurysms. It addresses vascular and cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional
radiologists, but also anyone engaged in vascular medicine. The book focuses amongst
other things on operations in the ascending aorta and the aortic arch. Surgical
procedures in this area have received increasing attention in the last few years and
have been subjected to several modifications.
Isolated blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) represents about 5% of annual trauma mortality
from blunt trauma. As part of multiple-site injury (polytrauma), BAT contributes another
15% of trauma mortality. In the abdominal trauma, the best exploration strategy is one that
leads most quickly and reliably in the diagnosis of surgical injury. This strategy must be
established based on hemodynamic status and clinical guidance but should never delay a
Over the past 20 years, technological advances in molecular biology have
proven invaluable to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human cancer.
The application of molecular technology to the study of cancer has not only
led to advances in tumor diagnosis, but has also provided markers for the
assessment of prognosis and disease progression. The aim of Molecular Analysis
of Cancer is to provide a comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date
techniques for the detection of molecular changes in human cancer.
Carcinoma of the lung is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women.
Prognosis correlates strongly with stage of disease at presentation and to some degree with
the histological subtype of the tumor. Histological classifications of lung cancer were somewhat
arbitrary and a matter of convenience. However, multiple lines of differentiation are
often found within a single tumor, if it is sufficiently sampled.
This book deals with problems which are sufficiently important to become the subject of studies.
Cancer of the stomach remains one of the most pressing medical problems. Meanwhile,
scientific and practical interest in this problem has markedly diminished during recent years.
According to some experts, this can be explained first by the decreasing incidence of gastric
cancer. But this concerns only some developed countries, where effective measures are taken
for the prevention and early diagnosis of malignant tumors.
“Advances in Prostate Cancer” is an addition to the InTech collection of three previous
books about prostate cancer and aims at providing a comprehensive overview of specific
aspects of the latest research and current knowledge relating to this tumor entity to
scientists and clinicians. For this purpose a series of research articles, clinical investigations
and reviews that deal with a wide range of relevant aspects pertinent to the epidemiology,
diagnosis, patient care, treatment and basic biology of prostate cancer were included.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 77. Approach to the Patient with Cancer
Approach to the Patient with Cancer: Introduction The application of current treatment techniques (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and biological therapy) results in the cure of nearly two of three patients diagnosed with cancer. Nevertheless, patients experience the diagnosis of cancer as one of the most traumatic and revolutionary events that has ever happened to them.
The recognition and treatment of depression are important components of management. The incidence of depression in cancer patients is ~25% overall and may be greater in patients with greater debility. This diagnosis is likely in a patient with a depressed mood (dysphoria) and/or a loss of interest in pleasure (anhedonia) for at least 2 weeks. In addition, three or more of the following symptoms are usually present: appetite change, sleep problems, psychomotor retardation or agitation, fatigue, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, inability to concentrate, and suicidal ideation.
Death and Dying The most common causes of death in patients with cancer are infection (leading to circulatory failure), respiratory failure, hepatic failure, and renal failure. Intestinal blockage may lead to inanition and starvation. Central nervous system disease may lead to seizures, coma, and central hypoventilation. About 70% of patients develop dyspnea preterminally. However, many months usually pass between the diagnosis of cancer and the occurrence of these complications, and during this period the patient is severely affected by the possibility of death. ...
Clinical Presentation and Differential Diagnosis Most head and neck cancers occur after age 50, although these cancers can appear in younger patients, including those without known risk factors. The manifestations vary according to the stage and primary site of the tumor. Patients with nonspecific signs and symptoms in the head and neck area should be evaluated with a thorough otolaryngologic exam, particularly if symptoms persist longer than 2â€“4 weeks.
Cancer of the nasopharynx typically does not cause early symptoms.
The last three decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the understanding
and treatment of breast cancer. As a result, starting shortly before the 1990s, a persistent
decrease in breast cancer mortality has been documented, primarily in the
United States and in several European countries. Breast cancer, however, remains
an important health problem. In this book, which is mainly dedicated to nuclear
medicine, experts have thoroughly reviewed the achievements made in the diagnosis,
monitoring and treatment of this disease.
Today, cancer research is focused on determining how genome and proteome level
information may be useful as tools in prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis. The
development of “omics” technologies, such as proteomics and transcriptomics has
opened new research areas for scientists working on cancer research.
Ovarian cancer can no longer be considered one disease entity, but a heterogeneous group
of diseases. Our understanding of its clinical and molecular complexity is improving nota‐
bly over the last decade. This is of utmost importance when it comes to determine the most
adequate treatment strategy for each individual patient. Despite not being the most frequent
tumor, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst gynecological cancers.
Defining the Extent of Disease and the Prognosis The first priority in patient management after the diagnosis of cancer is established and shared with the patient is to determine the extent of disease. The curability of a tumor usually is inversely proportional to the tumor burden. Ideally, the tumor will be diagnosed before symptoms develop or as a consequence of screening efforts (Chap. 78). A very high proportion of such patients can be cured.
Pain Pain occurs with variable frequency in the cancer patient: 25–50% of patients present with pain at diagnosis, 33% have pain associated with treatment, and 75% have pain with progressive disease. The pain may have several causes. In ~70% of cases, pain is caused by the tumor itself—by invasion of bone, nerves, blood vessels, or mucous membranes or obstruction of a hollow viscus or duct.