Xem 1-20 trên 132 kết quả Cancer drugs
  • The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer is a medical reference product designed to inform and educate readers about a wide variety of cancers, treatments, diagnostic procedures, side effects, and cancer drugs. The Gale Group believes the product to be comprehensive, but not necessarily definitive. It is intended to supplement, not replace, consultation with a physician or other health care practitioner.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu khoa học ngành y học tạp chí Medical Sciences dành cho các bạn sinh viên ngành y tham khảo đề tài: Current Status of Methods to Assess Cancer Drug Resistance...

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  • For thousands of years, humans have used a variety of sources with which to cure their ills, cast out devils, promote their wellbeing, relieve their misery, and control their fertility. Until the beginning of the twentieth century, the agents used were all of natural origin, including many derived from plants as well as elements such as antimony, sulfur, mercury, and arsenic. The sixteenth-century alchemist and physician Paracelsus used mercury and arsenic in his treatment of syphilis, worms, and other diseases that were common at that time; his cure rates, however, remain unknown.

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  • Clearly a more stratified approach to clinical trials would help identify those subgroups who appear to be the best responders to a particular intervention. To date however there is little to suggest that stratification on the basis of clinical characteristics successfully helps predict which drugs work best for which patients. There is a pressing need for the development of biomarkers with clinical utility, for mental health problems.

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  • For decades we have been learning about the interplay between tumors and the immune system. Our knowledge seemed somewhat incomplete and indirect, like listening to the ocean waves through a shell. Only recently, cancer immunotherapy has started to become a reality, with Provenge (Dendreon Corporation, WA), an autologous antigen-presenting cell preparation, earning the approval of United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer in 2010.

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  • The third volume of the Annals of Traditional Chinese Medicine carries the theme of Cancer Treatment. Since the commencement of this book series, the Editorial Board has emphasized its main objective, that is to help modernize Chinese medicine, thus providing a convenient platform for all scientists, including those who belong to the traditional camp as well as members of the modern scientific community who insist on strict deductive approaches.

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  • Antiangiogenic Therapy Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor angiogenesis may provide unique opportunities for cancer treatment. Acquired drug resistance of tumor cells due to their high intrinsic mutation rate is a major cause of treatment failure in human cancers. ECs comprising the tumor vasculature are genetically stable and do not share genetic changes with tumor cells; the EC apoptosis pathways are therefore intact.

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  • Today, cancer research is focused on determining how genome and proteome level information may be useful as tools in prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis. The development of “omics” technologies, such as proteomics and transcriptomics has opened new research areas for scientists working on cancer research.

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  • Cancer Cell Biology The treatment of most human cancers with conventional cytoreductive agents has been unsuccessful due to the Gompertzian-like growth kinetics of solid tumors (i.e., tumor growth is exponential in small tumors, with increasing doubling times as tumors expand; since conventional chemotherapeutic agents target proliferating cells, noncycling cells in large tumors are relatively resistant). Genetic instability is inherent in most cancer cells and predisposes to the development of intrinsic and acquired drug resistance. Thus, although tumors arise from a single cell (i.e.

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  • Estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors, members of the steroid hormone family of nuclear receptors, are targets of inhibition by drugs used to treat breast and prostate cancers, respectively. Tamoxifen, a partial agonist and antagonist of ER function, can mediate tumor regression in metastatic breast cancer and can prevent disease recurrence in the adjuvant setting, saving thousands of lives each year. Tamoxifen binds to the ER and modulates its transcriptional activity, inhibiting activity in the breast but promoting activity in bone and uterine epithelium.

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  • Principles of Chemotherapy Medical oncology is the subspecialty of internal medicine that cares for and designs treatment approaches to patients with cancer, in conjunction with surgical and radiation oncologists. The core skills of the medical oncologist include the use of drugs that may have a beneficial effect on the natural history of the patient's illness or favorably influence the patient's quality of life. In general, the curability of a tumor is inversely related to tumor volume and directly related to drug dose.

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  • Typhlitis Typhlitis (also referred to as necrotizing colitis, neutropenic colitis, necrotizing enteropathy, ileocecal syndrome, and cecitis) is a clinical syndrome of fever and right-lower-quadrant tenderness in an immunosuppressed host. This syndrome is classically seen in neutropenic patients after chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs.

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  • It has been said that the control of disease has three goals, which, in increasing order of attraction are palliation, cure, and prevention. For most types of disseminated cancer, medical science has achieved only the first of these objectives, while for some malignancies the side effects of the therapeutic agents employed rival the disease itself in precluding a desirable quality of life.

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  • Signaling Pathways Downstream of Rtks: Ras and PI3K Several oncogene and tumor-suppressor gene products are components of signal transduction pathways that emanate from RTK activation (Fig. 80-2). The most extensively studied are the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, both of which regulate multiple processes in cancer cells, including cell cycle progression, resistance to apoptotic signals, angiogenesis, and cell motility.

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  • Oncogene Addiction and Synthetic Lethality The concepts of oncogene addiction and synthetic lethality have spurred new drug development targeting oncogene and tumor-suppressor pathways. As discussed earlier in this chapter and outlined in Fig. 80-3, cancer cells become physiologically dependent upon signaling pathways containing activated oncogenes; this can effect proliferation (i.e.

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  • Karnofsky was among the first to champion the evaluation of a chemotherapeutic agent's benefit by carefully quantitating its effect on tumor size and using these measurements to objectively decide the basis for further treatment of a particular patient or further clinical evaluation of a drug's potential.

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  • Following demonstration of activity in animal models, conventional chemotherapeutic agents are further evaluated to define an optimal schedule of administration and arrive at a drug formulation designed for a given route and schedule. Safety testing in two species on an analogous schedule of administration defines the starting dose for a phase I trial in humans. This is established as a fraction, usually one-sixth to one-tenth, of the dose just causing easily reversible toxicity in the more sensitive animal species.

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  • Pemetrexed is a novel folate-directed antimetabolite. It is "multitargeted" in that it inhibits the activity of several enzymes, including thymidylate synthetase, dihydrofolate reductase, and glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase, thereby affecting the synthesis of both purine and pyrimidine nucleic acid precursors. To avoid significant toxicity to the normal tissues, patients receiving pemetrexed should also receive low-dose folate and vitamin B12 supplementation.

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  • Nausea and Vomiting The most common side effect of chemotherapy administration is nausea, with or without vomiting. Nausea may be acute (within 24 h of chemotherapy), delayed (24 h), or anticipatory of the receipt of chemotherapy. Patients may be likewise stratified for their risk of susceptibility to nausea and vomiting, with increased risk in young, female, heavily pretreated patients without a history of alcohol or drug use but with a history of motion or morning sickness. Antineoplastic agents vary in their capacity to cause nausea and vomiting. ...

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  • Many cancer patients are diagnosed at a stage in which the cancer is too far advanced to be cured, and most cancer treatments are effective in only a minority of patients undergoing therapy. Thus, there is tremendous opportunity to improve the outcome for people with cancer by enhancing detection and treatment approaches. Biomarkers will be instrumental in making that transition.

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