Xem 1-20 trên 157 kết quả Cancer epidemiology
  • In its fifth edition, Cancer Medicine has been named eponymously to honor its founding editors James F. Holland and Emil Frei III, two giants of medical oncology. The Holland-Frei Cancer Medicine reflects their dedication to innovative, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary care of cancer patients, as well as their belief in the importance of grounding such care in a more fundamental understanding of cancer biology. It is to their vision and the example that they have established over the last four decades that this book is dedicated.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'cancer medicine 5_2', y tế - sức khoẻ, y học thường thức phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • This publication is the product of a comprehensive consultation undertaken by WHO in 2001 involving leading experts in the field of cancer epidemiology, screening and treatment. It is part of WHO's commitment to provide evidence-based guidelines to decision makers, and a recognition of the priority that should be given to cervical cancer screening and treatment as an essential component of any comprehensive national cancer control program. The report focuses particularly on the situation in low and middle income countries - countries in......

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  • Differentiated thyroid cancer is the fastest‐growing cancer in women; it increased 2.4% per year during 1980 to 1997 and 6.5% per year during 1997 to 2006 in the USA according to the National Cancer Instituteʹs Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER). On the other hand, the refinement of new approaches for surveillance of patients with an established diagnosis of thyroid cancer is leading to the observation that many patients, previously thought to be cured, have evidence of minimal residual disease, a condition with which we still do not know how to manage properly....

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  • Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer diagnosed in Western populations. Autopsy studies have shown that with increasing age, the majority of men will develop microscopic foci of cancer (often termed “latent” prostate cancer) and that this is true in populations that are at both high and low risk for the invasive form of the disease (1). However, only a small percentage of men will develop invasive prostate cancer. The prevalence of prostate cancer is, thus, very common; but to most men, prostate cancer will be only incidental to their health and death....

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  • The prognosis for individuals with liver cancer is frequently poor. Cancers include those which have metastasized to the liver from elsewhere, reflecting advanced stage disease where cure is rarely possible. Similarly, primary liver cancer frequently complicates chronic liver disease, which further limits therapeutic options. Despite these dismal facts, there are signs that change is imminent. Not only have imaging modalities and surgical techniques improved, but preventive strategies and medical therapies show promise.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 84. Head and Neck Cancer Head and Neck Cancer: Introduction Epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck arise from the mucosal surfaces in the head and neck area and typically are squamous cell in origin. This category includes tumors of the paranasal sinuses, the oral cavity, and the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Tumors of the salivary glands differ from the more common carcinomas of the head and neck in etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, and therapy. Thyroid malignancies are described in Chap. 335.

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  • There is growing evidence on the importance of studies focusing on mechanisms and strategies leading to cancer prevention. The plethora of approaches include regulation of oxidative stress using antioxidant therapies, carefully balanced diets and living habits, epidemiological evidence and molecular approaches on the role of key biological molecules such as antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, proteins and naturally occurring free radical scavengers as well as controversial results and clinical applications. These are some of the topics that this book highlights.

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  • Oxidative stress state is involved in the aging process as well as in a vast array of pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, cardiovascular complications, diabetes, cancer, and neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases.

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  • The longer migrants live and adapt to their destination country, the more their cancer rates converge towards those in that country. This has been shown for stomach, colon and prostate cancer (McKay, 2003). Migrants from non-western countries to Europe were found to be more prone to cancers that are related to infections experienced in early life, such as liver, cervical and stomach cancer. In contrast, migrants of non-western origin were less likely to suffer from cancers related to a western lifestyle, e.g. colorectal and breast cancer (Arnold et al., 2010)....

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  • The goal of cancer treatment is first to eradicate the cancer. If this primary goal cannot be accomplished, the goal of cancer treatment shifts to palliation, the amelioration of symptoms, and preservation of quality of life while striving to extend life. The dictum primum non nocere is not the guiding principle of cancer therapy. When cure of cancer is possible, cancer treatments may be undertaken despite the certainty of severe and perhaps life-threatening toxicities.

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  • Candida species are opportunistic fungal pathogens which cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients. Due to the profound developments in medical care, the number of immunocompromised patients has increased, and so has the number of life-threatening Candida infections1. At present, Candida is the 4th most common bloodstream pathogen in North America and ranks 8th in Europe13,19.

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  • “Advances in Prostate Cancer” is an addition to the InTech collection of three previous books about prostate cancer and aims at providing a comprehensive overview of specific aspects of the latest research and current knowledge relating to this tumor entity to scientists and clinicians. For this purpose a series of research articles, clinical investigations and reviews that deal with a wide range of relevant aspects pertinent to the epidemiology, diagnosis, patient care, treatment and basic biology of prostate cancer were included.

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  • Tumors of the Stomach Gastric Adenocarcinoma Incidence and Epidemiology For unclear reasons, the incidence and mortality rates for gastric cancer have decreased markedly during the past 75 years. The mortality rate from gastric cancer in the United States has dropped in men from 28 to 5.8 per 100,000 persons, while in women the rate has decreased from 27 to 2.8 per 100,000. Nonetheless, 21,260 new cases of stomach cancer were diagnosed in the United States, and 11,210 Americans died of the disease in 2007.

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  • Neither randomized clinical trials nor meta- analysis are available and evidence is based on a number of retrospective studies with multivariate for mortality risk factors or data from national cancer registries (Gilliland et al., 1997; Hundahl et al., 1998). Unfortunately, very remarkable differences in patient’s selection, staging systems, and clinical management affect the available studies. In particular, radioiodine treatment is not routinely carried out in a standard manner and outcome results of different studies are thus not comparable (Sciuto et al., 2009).

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  • In the past 15 years, molecular biologists and geneticists have uncovered some of the most basic mechanisms by means of which normal stem cells in a certain organ or tissue develop into cancerous tumors. This biological knowledge serves as a basis for various models of carcinogenesis.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 89. Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer: Introduction Over 90% of pancreatic cancers are ductal adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas. These tumors occur twice as frequently in the pancreatic head compared to the rest of the organ, and tend to be aggressive, often presenting when locally inoperable or after distal metastases have occurred. Patients with pancreatic cancer have a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival of only 5%. The discussion of pancreatic cancer here will be limited to ductal adenocarcinomas.

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  • Over 90% of pancreatic cancers are ductal adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas. These tumors occur twice as frequently in the pancreatic head compared to the rest of the organ, and tend to be aggressive, often presenting when locally inoperable or after distal metastases have occurred. Patients with pancreatic cancer have a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival of only 5%. The discussion of pancreatic cancer here will be limited to ductal adenocarcinomas.

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  • Physical Activity Physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of colon and breast cancer. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed. However, such studies are prone to confounding factors such as recall bias, association of exercise with other health-related practices, and effects of preclinical cancers on exercise habits (reverse causality). Recommending adults to engage in at least 30 min of vigorous activity for ≥3 days a week is good health advice, though its effects on cancer incidence are unproven.

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  • Table 86-2 5-Year Survival Rate for Breast Cancer by Stage Stage 5-Year Survival, % 0 99 I 92 IIA 82 IIB 65 IIIA 47 IIIB 44 IV 14 Source: Modified from data of the National Cancer Institute—Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER). Estrogen and progesterone receptor status are of prognostic significance. Tumors that lack either or both of these receptors are more likely to recur than tumors that have them. Several measures of tumor growth rate correlate with early relapse. S-phase analysis using flow cytometry is the most accurate measure.

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