The average annual incidence rates of certain cancers, including cervical, esophageal, liver, oral
cavity and pharynx, and stomach cancer were significantly higher in the poorest areas in New
Jersey as compared to the wealthiest areas. Among men, lung cancer incidence rates were
significantly higher in the poorest areas, while lung cancer rates for women did not differ
substantially among the three poverty area groups (areas with high poverty, medium poverty, and
This article offers a brief overview of the health evidence on Agent Orange and cancer, to help clinicians serve
Vietnam veteran patients and their family members. The evidence comes from several sources including studies of
Vietnam veterans, workers exposed to herbicides or dioxins (since dioxins contaminated the herbicide mixtures used
in Vietnam) in occupational settings, and studies of health effects among Vietnamese populations in the aftermath of
the war. This article does not offer a complete review of all these lines of evidence.
Cancer care today often provides state-of-the-science biomedical
treatment, but fails to address the psychological and social (psychosocial)
problems associated with the illness. This failure can compromise
the effectiveness of health care and thereby adversely affect the health of
Each year , approximately 71,500 women in the United States are diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer.
While all women are at risk for developing gynecologic cancers, few will ever develop one. Still, it is
important to know the signs because there is no way to know for sure who will get a gynecologic cancer.
The information included in this booklet will help you recognize any warning signs, so you can ask your health
care provider about them. These signs and symptoms often are related to something other than gynecologic
cancer. But it is...
The Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer is a medical reference
product designed to inform and educate readers
about a wide variety of cancers, treatments, diagnostic
procedures, side effects, and cancer drugs. The Gale
Group believes the product to be comprehensive, but
not necessarily definitive. It is intended to supplement,
not replace, consultation with a physician or other
health care practitioner.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 84. Head and Neck Cancer
Head and Neck Cancer: Introduction
Epithelial carcinomas of the head and neck arise from the mucosal surfaces in the head and neck area and typically are squamous cell in origin. This category includes tumors of the paranasal sinuses, the oral cavity, and the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx. Tumors of the salivary glands differ from the more common carcinomas of the head and neck in etiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, and therapy. Thyroid malignancies are described in Chap. 335.
There is growing evidence on the importance of studies focusing on mechanisms and
strategies leading to cancer prevention. The plethora of approaches include regulation
of oxidative stress using antioxidant therapies, carefully balanced diets and living
habits, epidemiological evidence and molecular approaches on the role of key
biological molecules such as antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, proteins and naturally
occurring free radical scavengers as well as controversial results and clinical
applications. These are some of the topics that this book highlights.
Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.
Chemoprevention β-Carotene and cis-retinoic acid can lead to the regression of leukoplakia. However, cis-retinoic acid does not reduce the incidence of second primaries
Complications from treatment of head and neck cancer are usually correlated to the extent of surgery and exposure of normal tissue structures to radiation. Currently, the extent of surgery has been limited or completely replaced by chemotherapy and radiation therapy as the primary approach. Acute complications of radiation include mucositis and dysphagia.
The European Association of Urology (EAU) Guidelines Group for Prostate Cancer have prepared this
guidelines document to assist medical professionals assess the evidence-based management of prostate
cancer. The multidisciplinary panel of experts include urologists, radiation oncologists, a medical oncologist,
and a pathologist.
Where possible a level of evidence (LE) and/or grade of recommendation (GR) have been assigned
(1). Recommendations are graded in order to provide transparency between the underlying evidence and the
recommendation given (Tables 1 and 2)...
The third volume of the Annals of Traditional Chinese Medicine carries
the theme of Cancer Treatment. Since the commencement of this book
series, the Editorial Board has emphasized its main objective, that is to
help modernize Chinese medicine, thus providing a convenient platform
for all scientists, including those who belong to the traditional camp as
well as members of the modern scientific community who insist on strict
“Advances in Prostate Cancer” is an addition to the InTech collection of three previous
books about prostate cancer and aims at providing a comprehensive overview of specific
aspects of the latest research and current knowledge relating to this tumor entity to
scientists and clinicians. For this purpose a series of research articles, clinical investigations
and reviews that deal with a wide range of relevant aspects pertinent to the epidemiology,
diagnosis, patient care, treatment and basic biology of prostate cancer were included.
Induction of p53 by the DNA damage and oncogene checkpoints.
In response to noxious stimuli, p53 and mdm2 are phosphorylated by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and related ATR serine/threonine kinases, as well as the immediated downstream checkpoint kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This causes dissociation of p53 from mdm2, leading to increased p53 protein levels and transcription of genes leading to cell cycle arrest (p21Cip1/Waf1) or apoptosis (e.g., the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa and Puma).
The most important prognostic factor is the stage at the time of presentation. Fortunately, most melanomas are diagnosed in clinical stages I and II. The revised American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for melanoma is based on microscopic primary tumor depth (Breslow's thickness), presence of ulceration, evidence of nodal involvement, and presence of metastatic disease to internal sites (Table 83-3). Certain anatomic sites may affect the prognosis.
The entire cutaneous surface, including the scalp and mucous membranes, should be examined in each patient. Bright room illumination is important, and a 7x to 10x hand lens is helpful for evaluating variation in pigment pattern. A history of relevant risk factors should be elicited. Any suspicious lesions should be biopsied, evaluated by a specialist, or recorded by chart and/or photography for follow-up. Examination of the lymph nodes and palpation of the abdominal viscera are part of the staging examination for suspected melanoma.
Clinical Presentation and Differential Diagnosis Most head and neck cancers occur after age 50, although these cancers can appear in younger patients, including those without known risk factors. The manifestations vary according to the stage and primary site of the tumor. Patients with nonspecific signs and symptoms in the head and neck area should be evaluated with a thorough otolaryngologic exam, particularly if symptoms persist longer than 2â€“4 weeks.
Cancer of the nasopharynx typically does not cause early symptoms.
There have been a significant number of advances
in the field of cancer research since the
first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published
in 1981. These include advances in defining
the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer
cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular
imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors,
the regulation of gene expression, and the
‘‘-omics’’ techniquesofgenomics, proteomics,and
metabolomics, among others.
Today, cancer research is focused on determining how genome and proteome level
information may be useful as tools in prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis. The
development of “omics” technologies, such as proteomics and transcriptomics has
opened new research areas for scientists working on cancer research.
Imatinib has also demonstrated targeted activity in other diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), rare mesenchymal tumors of the GI tract (stomach and small intestine). The pathogenic molecular event for most patients with this disease is mutation of the proto-oncogene c-Kit, leading to the constitutive activation of this receptor tyrosine kinase without the binding of its physiologic ligand, stem cell factor. About 10% of GISTs encode activating mutations of the PDGFRα instead of c-Kit.
PI3K is a heterodimeric lipid kinase that catalyses the conversion of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) to phosphatidylinositol trisphosphate (PIP3), which acts as a plasma membrane docking site for proteins that contain a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain. These include the serine/threonine kinases Akt and PDK1 that are key downstream effectors of PI3K action (Fig. 80-2). The PI3K pathway is activated in 30–40% of human cancers and is thought to play a critical role in tumor cell survival, proliferation, growth, and glucose utilization.