This publication is the product of a comprehensive consultation undertaken by WHO in 2001 involving leading experts in the field of cancer epidemiology, screening and treatment. It is part of WHO's commitment to provide evidence-based guidelines to decision makers, and a recognition of the priority that should be given to cervical cancer screening and treatment as an essential component of any comprehensive national cancer control program. The report focuses particularly on the situation in low and middle income countries - countries in......
Document introduction of content: Introduction, methodology and literature review; epidemiology of colorectal cancer; screening tests and evidence - Stool tests, occult blood, and DNA; screening tests and evidence - Endoscopy and CT colonography, cost-Effectiveness of CRC screening; cascades – Tooling up for screening, where to get help, useful web sites, guidelines and selected references.
Quality assurance of the screening process requires a robust system of programme mana-
gement and coordination, assuring that all aspects of the service are performing adequa-
tely. The first edition of the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer
Screening emphasized the principles of organised, population-based screening and was in-
strumental in initiating pilot projects in Europe. More than a decade has passed since pub-
lication of the first guideline edition.
According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer continues to take
a devastating toll. Among women in the United States, cancer is the
second-leading cause of death after heart disease. Medical researchers
fighting against cancer have made significant progress, however. In
recent years, cancer incidence rates have been stable, and—although
the annual rate of decline in cancer death rates among men have been
twice as large as the declines in women—mortality has decreased for
ten of the top 15 cancers in women.
recommendations for evidence-based screening (Table 4-3). In addition to these population-based guidelines, it is reasonable to consider family and social history to identify individuals with special risk (www.ahrq.gov/clinic/uspstfix.htm). For example, when there is a significant family history of breast, colon, or prostate cancer, it is prudent to initiate screening about 10 years before the age when the youngest family member developed cancer.
The quality assurance teams and managers supported the evolution of the
breast screening programme locally, and professional quality assurance
groups were developed with the relevant associations and royal colleges
at a national level. In 1990, a new post of national coordinator of the
NHSBSP was established, based at one of the regional heath authori-
ties. Mrs Julietta Patnick at the Trent Region in Sheffield was appointed,
and she is now the Director of the NHS Cancer Screening Programmes,
which includes the NHSBSP.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a major public health problem worldwide. Fortunately most CRCs originate from a precursor lesion, the adenoma, which is accessible and removable. This is the rationale for CRC screening programs, which are aimed to diagnose CRC at an early stage or even better to detect and resect the advanced adenoma before CRC has developed. In this background colonoscopy emerges as the main tool to achieve these goals with recent evidence supporting its role in CRC prevention....
Cancer Screening Screening is a means of detecting disease early in asymptomatic individuals, with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. While screening can potentially save lives and has been shown to do so in cervical, colon, and probably breast cancer, it is also subject to a number of biases that can suggest a benefit when actually there is none. Biases can even mask net harm. Early detection does not in itself confer benefit. To be of value, screening must detect disease earlier, and treatment of earlier disease must yield a better outcome than treatment at the onset of...
Screening The rationale for colorectal cancer screening programs is that earlier detection of localized, superficial cancers in asymptomatic individuals will increase the surgical cure rate. Such screening programs are important for individuals having a family history of the disease in first-degree relatives. The relative risk for developing colorectal cancer increases to 1.75 in such individuals and may be even higher if the relative was afflicted before age 60.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Effective interventions to facilitate the uptake of breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening: An implementation guideline.
Many cancer patients are diagnosed at a stage in which the cancer is too far advanced to be cured, and most cancer treatments are effective in only a minority of patients undergoing therapy. Thus, there is tremendous opportunity to improve the outcome for people with cancer by enhancing detection and treatment approaches. Biomarkers will be instrumental in making that transition.
Cytological screening every three to five years can prevent up to four out of five cases of
cervical cancer. Such benefits can only be achieved if screening is provided in organized,
population-based programmes with quality assurance at all levels. This is an important
lesson which has been learned through pan-European cooperation and collaboration in the
European Cancer Network.
Lung Cancer Chest x-ray and sputum cytology have been evaluated in randomized lung cancer screening trials. No reduction in lung cancer mortality has been seen, although all the controlled trials have had low statistical power. Even screening of high-risk subjects (smokers) has not proven beneficial. Spiral CT can diagnose lung cancers at early stages; however, false-positive rates are high. Spiral CT screening increases the number of lesions detected and increases the number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, its capacity to save lives is unproven.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Estimating the cost of cervical cancer screening in five developing countries...
Tham khảo luận văn - đề án 'báo cáo khoa học: " implementing academic detailing for breast cancer screening in underserved communities"', luận văn - báo cáo phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: The uptake and effect of a mailed multi-modal colon cancer screening intervention: A pilot controlled trial