New Concepts in the Development of Cancer Therapeutics
Cancer Stem Cells
It has long been recognized that only a small proportion of the cells within a tumor are capable of initiating colonies in vitro or of forming tumors at high efficiency when injected into immunocompromised NOD/SCID mice. Current work indicates that human acute and chronic myeloid leukemias (AML and CML) have a small population of cells (
It has been said that the control of disease has three goals, which, in
increasing order of attraction are palliation, cure, and prevention. For most types
of disseminated cancer, medical science has achieved only the first of these
objectives, while for some malignancies the side effects of the therapeutic agents
employed rival the disease itself in precluding a desirable quality of life.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: The effects of DNA formulation and administration route on cancer therapeutic efficacy with xenogenic EGFR DNA vaccine in a lung cancer animal model
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in
the United States with 170,000 deaths per year. This exceeds the sum of the
next three leading causes of death due to cancer: breast, colon, and prostate.
There are over 1 million deaths worldwide due to lung cancer, making it truly
an epidemic. Fewer than 15% achieve a 5-yr survival. The vast majority (85%)
present with advanced disease, although stage I patients may have a 5-yr
survival approaching 70% (1).
There is growing evidence on the importance of studies focusing on mechanisms and
strategies leading to cancer prevention. The plethora of approaches include regulation
of oxidative stress using antioxidant therapies, carefully balanced diets and living
habits, epidemiological evidence and molecular approaches on the role of key
biological molecules such as antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, proteins and naturally
occurring free radical scavengers as well as controversial results and clinical
applications. These are some of the topics that this book highlights.
Highlights in Skincancer is a companion handbook published expressly for all the practitionners who are interested in skin cancers: medical oncologists and dermatologists but also residents, general practitionners, surgeons, plastic surgeons. The book is designed to teach new aspects of skincancers in the context of practical clinical settings. Each topic is an expert view of a specific skincancer field.
Carcinoma of the lung is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women.
Prognosis correlates strongly with stage of disease at presentation and to some degree with
the histological subtype of the tumor. Histological classifications of lung cancer were somewhat
arbitrary and a matter of convenience. However, multiple lines of differentiation are
often found within a single tumor, if it is sufficiently sampled.
The use of non-biomedical therapeutics and the management of cancer are
high profile issues in health internationally. They both generate, in their
own right, considerable debate amongst academics, practitioners and the
wider public. Increasingly, as non-biomedical approaches have become
more and more a feature of the range of therapeutic options available to
cancer patients, the two have become inextricably linked. This book is concerned
with that increasingly evident combination.
The last three decades have witnessed tremendous advances in the understanding
and treatment of breast cancer. As a result, starting shortly before the 1990s, a persistent
decrease in breast cancer mortality has been documented, primarily in the
United States and in several European countries. Breast cancer, however, remains
an important health problem. In this book, which is mainly dedicated to nuclear
medicine, experts have thoroughly reviewed the achievements made in the diagnosis,
monitoring and treatment of this disease.
This book describes a course of cancer growth starting from normal cells to cancerous form and the genomic instability, the cancer treatment as well as its prevention in form of the invention of a vaccine. Some diseases are also discussed in detail, such as breast cancer, leucaemia, cervical cancer, and glioma. Understanding cancer through its molecular mechanism is needed to reduce the cancer incidence.
Today, cancer research is focused on determining how genome and proteome level
information may be useful as tools in prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis. The
development of “omics” technologies, such as proteomics and transcriptomics has
opened new research areas for scientists working on cancer research.
Ovarian cancer can no longer be considered one disease entity, but a heterogeneous group
of diseases. Our understanding of its clinical and molecular complexity is improving nota‐
bly over the last decade. This is of utmost importance when it comes to determine the most
adequate treatment strategy for each individual patient. Despite not being the most frequent
tumor, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst gynecological cancers.
Pancreatic Cancer: Treatment Symptoms and the associated impaired performance status are significant issues in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer, as they can have a marked negative impact on the ability to safely deliver chemotherapy or perform curative surgery. For example, patients with malabsorption secondary to pancreatic insufficiency may be treated with pancreatic enzyme supplementation. Indeed effective symptom management is as important a therapeutic goal as survival prolongation.
Telomeres play an important role in cellular aging and cancer. Human
telomeric DNA and RNA G-rich sequences are capable of forming a four-stranded structure, known as the G-quadruplex. Such a structure might be
important for telomere biology and a good target for drug design.
Staging Correct staging of breast cancer patients is of extraordinary importance. Not only does it permit an accurate prognosis, but in many cases therapeutic decisionmaking is based largely on the TNM (primary tumor, regional nodes, metastasis) classification (Table 86-1). Comparison with historic series should be undertaken with caution, as the staging has changed several times in the past 20 years. The current staging is complex and results in significant changes in outcome by stage as compared with prior staging systems.
Cancer remains a major clinical challenge as a cause of death due to its frequent poor
prognosis and limited treatment options in many cases.
Cancer management book addresses various cancer management related topics
including new approaches for early cancer detection and novel anti‐cancer therapeutic
This book is a collection of studies and reviews written by experts from different parts
of the world to present the most up‐to‐date knowledge on cancer management.
Lung Cancer Chest x-ray and sputum cytology have been evaluated in randomized lung cancer screening trials. No reduction in lung cancer mortality has been seen, although all the controlled trials have had low statistical power. Even screening of high-risk subjects (smokers) has not proven beneficial. Spiral CT can diagnose lung cancers at early stages; however, false-positive rates are high. Spiral CT screening increases the number of lesions detected and increases the number of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, its capacity to save lives is unproven.