Xem 1-20 trên 277 kết quả Cancer type
  • Cell culture is practiced extensively throughout the world today. The techniques required to allow cells to grow and be maintained outside the body have been developed throughout the 20th century. In the 50 years since the publication of the first human cancer cell line, HeLa (1), thousands of cell lines representing most of the spectrum of human cancer have been derived. These have provided tools to study in depth the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types and have helped enormously in our understanding of normal as well as cancer cell physiology.

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  • Mechanisms of Oncogene Activation Mechanisms that upregulate (or activate) cellular oncogenes fall into three broad categories: point mutation, DNA amplification, and chromosomal rearrangement. Point Mutation Point mutation is a common mechanism of oncogene activation. For example, mutations in one of the RAS genes (HRAS, KRAS, or NRAS) are present in up to 85% of pancreatic cancers and 50% of colon cancers but are relatively uncommon in other cancer types. Remarkably—and in contrast to the diversity of mutations found in tumor-suppressor genes (Fig.

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  • Chromosomal Instability in Solid Tumors Solid tumors are generally highly aneuploid, containing an abnormal number of chromosomes; these chromosomes also exhibit structural alterations such as translocations, deletions, and amplifications. Again, colon cancer has proven to be a particularly useful model for the study of chromosomal instability (CIN). As described above, some familial cases are characterized by the presence of MIN.

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  • Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in men and its treatment was constricted to surgery for confined state and androgen ablation for advanced disease until new options have become available. The present book covers a broad range of novel aspects of prostate cancer diagnosis, treatment and patient care, as well as new research on relevant cell biology.

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  • Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. (1). Although tobacco smoking is accepted as the number one cause of this devastating disease, our understanding of the acquired genetic changes leading to lung cancer is still rudimentary. Lung cancer is classifi ed into two major clinic-pathological groups, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (2). Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are the major histologic types of NSCLC....

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  • Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.

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  • Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.

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  • In developed countries, cancer is the second leading cause of death exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. There are more than 100 types of cancers that can inflict any part of the body. In 2005, 7.6 million people died of cancer, which constitutes 13% of the 58 million deaths worldwide. Approximately, 1.3 million people are diagnosed each year with cancer in the United States, and ~ 1500 of them die every day.

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  • In spite of the massive efforts being made worldwide to understand molecular genetics and epigenetic factors responsible for the initiation and progression of cancer, the statistics on this malignancy have remained enormously negative; the following data testify to this unfortunate human condition. There are more than 100 types of cancers that can inflict any part of the body. In 2005, 7.6 million people died of cancer, which makes up 13% of the 58 million deaths worldwide. Approximately 1.

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  • While most autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes are due to mutations in tumor-suppressor genes (Table 79-1), there are a few interesting exceptions. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type II, a dominant disorder characterized by pituitary adenomas, medullary carcinoma of the thyroid, and (in some pedigrees) pheochromocytoma, is due to gain-of-function mutations in the protooncogene RET on chromosome 10. Similarly, gain-of-function mutations in the tyrosine kinase domain of the MET oncogene lead to hereditary papillary renal carcinoma.

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  • The level of suspicion of infections with certain organisms should depend on the type of cancer diagnosed (Table 82-3). Diagnosis of multiple myeloma or CLL should alert the clinician to the possibility of hypogammaglobulinemia. While immunoglobulin replacement therapy can be effective, in most cases prophylactic antibiotics are a cheaper, more convenient method of eliminating bacterial infections in CLL patients with hypogammaglobulinemia.

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  • Typhlitis Typhlitis (also referred to as necrotizing colitis, neutropenic colitis, necrotizing enteropathy, ileocecal syndrome, and cecitis) is a clinical syndrome of fever and right-lower-quadrant tenderness in an immunosuppressed host. This syndrome is classically seen in neutropenic patients after chemotherapy with cytotoxic drugs.

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  • Clinical Characteristics There are four types of cutaneous melanoma (Table 83-2). In three of these—superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma—the lesion has a period of superficial (so-called radial) growth during which it increases in size but does not penetrate deeply. It is during this period that the melanoma is most capable of being cured by surgical excision. The fourth type—nodular melanoma—does not have a recognizable radial growth phase and usually presents as a deeply invasive lesion, capable of early metastasis.

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  • Table 87-5 Hereditable (Autosomal Dominant) Gastrointestinal Polyposis Syndromes Syndrom e Distribu Histolo nant Malig Associated Lesions tion of Polyps gic Type Potential Familial adenomatous polyposis Large intestine a Adenom on Comm None Gardner's Large Adenom Comm Osteomas, syndrome and intestines small a on fibromas, lipomas, epidermoid cysts, ampullary cancers, congenital hypertrophy retinal of pigment epithelium Turcot's syndrome Large intestine a Adenom on Comm tumors Brain Nonpoly Large Adenom on Comm al Endometri and ovarian posis syndrome int...

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 89. Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer: Introduction Over 90% of pancreatic cancers are ductal adenocarcinomas of the exocrine pancreas. These tumors occur twice as frequently in the pancreatic head compared to the rest of the organ, and tend to be aggressive, often presenting when locally inoperable or after distal metastases have occurred. Patients with pancreatic cancer have a poor prognosis, with a 5-year survival of only 5%. The discussion of pancreatic cancer here will be limited to ductal adenocarcinomas.

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  • It has been said that the control of disease has three goals, which, in increasing order of attraction are palliation, cure, and prevention. For most types of disseminated cancer, medical science has achieved only the first of these objectives, while for some malignancies the side effects of the therapeutic agents employed rival the disease itself in precluding a desirable quality of life.

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  • No matter where a cancer may spread, it is always named for the place where it started. For example, breast cancer that has spread to the liver is still called breast cancer, not liver cancer. Likewise, prostate cancer that has spread to the bone is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer. Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast cancer are very different diseases. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their particular kind of cancer.

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  • Several general principles have arisen from these studies. Bevacizumab appears to potentiate the effects of many different types of active chemotherapeutic regimens used to treat a variety of different tumor types. No phase III trials have demonstrated single-agent activity for bevacizumab; colon and lung cancer trials have demonstrated a lack of activity when used alone. An exception may be renal cell cancer (RCC), a tumor that is specifically dependent upon VEGF as the result of deletion of the VHL tumor suppressor and activation of the HIF-1α transcription factor (see above).

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  • The average annual incidence rates of certain cancers, including cervical, esophageal, liver, oral cavity and pharynx, and stomach cancer were significantly higher in the poorest areas in New Jersey as compared to the wealthiest areas. Among men, lung cancer incidence rates were significantly higher in the poorest areas, while lung cancer rates for women did not differ substantially among the three poverty area groups (areas with high poverty, medium poverty, and low poverty).

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  • Talk with your doctor or nurse if you are not sure what to eat during cancer treatment. Ask him or her to refer you to a dietitian. A dietitian is the best person to talk with about your diet. He or she can help choose foods and drinks that are best for you during treatment and after. ...

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