We planned the first edition of this book on a ‘need to know’
basis, its primary object being to provide students and medical
and dental practitioners with the knowledge essential for an
informed approach to the prevention and treatment of viral
infections. We aimed also at supplying just enough basic virology
to underpin the more practical aspects—clinical manifestations,
epidemiology, pathogenesis, immune responses, and so
forth. And not least, we tried our best to make the text as readable
as is possible, given the highly technical nature of some of
Over the last three decades, knowledge on the molecular biology of human cancers has vastly expanded. A host of genes and proteins involved in cancer development and progression have been defined and many mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and even tissue level have been, at least partly, elucidated. Insights have also been gained into the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis by chemical, physical, and biological agents and into inherited susceptibility to cancer. Accordingly, Part I of the book presents many of the molecules and mechanisms generally important in human cancers.
Other Nonmelanoma Cutaneous Malignancies
Neoplasms of cutaneous adnexa and sarcomas of fibrous, mesenchymal, fatty, and vascular tissues make up 1–2% of NMSC (Table 83-6). Some can portend a poor prognosis such as Merkel cell carcinoma, which is a neural crestderived, highly aggressive malignancy that exhibits a metastatic rate of 75% and a 5-year survival rate of 30–40%. Others, such as the human herpes virus 8-induced, HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, exhibit a more indolent course.
Complex Genetic Disorders
The expression of many common diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, asthma, psychiatric disorders, and certain cancers is determined by a combination of genetic background, environmental factors, and lifestyle. A trait is called polygenic if multiple genes contribute to the phenotype or multifactorial if multiple genes are assumed to interact with environmental factors. Genetic models for these complex traits need to account for genetic heterogeneity and interactions with other genes and the environment.
The ibuprofen primary binding site FA3–FA4 is located in domain III of
human serum albumin (HSA), the secondary clefts FA2 and FA6 being
sited in domains I and II. Here, the thermodynamics of ibuprofen binding
to recombinant Asp1–Glu382 truncated HSA (tHSA)–heme-Fe(III) and
nitrosylated tHSA–heme-Fe(II), encompassing domains I and II only, is
The European Union’s CAREX database of occupational exposures to
carcinogens estimated that in the early 1990s 22-24 million workers in the
then 15 EU member states were exposed to carcinogens classiﬁed as group 1
by the International Agency for Research on Cancer – those known to cause
cancer in humans.
Overall, 32 million workers, 23 per cent of the working population,
had workplace exposures associated by the CAREX database with an
occupational cancer risk.
T he science of human nutrition and its applications to health promotion continue to gain momentum. In
the relatively short time since the release of the first edition of this Encyclopedia, a few landmark
discoveries have had a dramatic multiplying effect over nutrition science: the mapping of the human genome,
the links between molecular bioenergetics and lifespan, the influence of nutrients on viral mutation, to name
We have investigated thein vitrorefolding process of human
proinsulin (HPI) and an artificial mini-C derivative of HPI
(porcine insulin precursor, PIP), and found that they have
significantly different disulfide-formation pathways.HPI
and PIP differ in their amino acid sequences due to the
presence of the C-peptide linker found in HPI, therefore
suggesting that the C-peptide linker may be responsible for
the observed difference in folding behaviour.
Previously, we demonstrated apoptotic cell death in the chorion laeve trophoblast layer of human fetal membrane tissues during the late stages of pregnancy, the progression of apoptosis during incubation in vitro, and its suppression by a low concentration of glucocorticoid hormones.
Human immunodeﬁciency virus type 1 protein R (HIV-1 Vpr) promotes nuclear entry of viral nucleic acids in nondividing cells, causes G2 cell cycle arrest and is involved in cellular diﬀerentiation and cell death. Vpr subcellular localization is as variable as its functions. It is known, that consistent with its role in nuclear transport, Vpr localizes to the nuclear envelope of human cells. Further, a reported ion channel activity of Vpr is clearly dependent on its localization in or at membranes.
Neuroglobin (Ngb) is a recently discovered globin that is predominantly
expressed in the brain, retina and other nerve tissues of human and other
vertebrates. Ngb has been shown to act as a neuroprotective factor, pro-moting neuronal survival in conditions of hypoxic–ischemic insult, such as
those occurring during stroke.
Acetylcholinesterase is an enzyme whose best-known function is to hydro-lyze the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholinesterase is expressed in
several noncholinergic tissues. Accordingly, we report for the first time the
identification of acetylcholinesterase in human umbilical cord vein endo-thelial cells. Here we further performed an electrophoretic and biochemical
characterization of this enzyme, using protein extracts obtained by solubili-zation of human endothelial cell membranes with Triton X-100. ...
GToligomers, showingadose-dependent cytotoxic effect on
a variety of human cancer cell lines, but not on normal
human lymphocytes, recognize and form complexes with
nuclear proteins.By working with human T-lymphoblastic
CCRF-CEM cells and by using MS and SouthWestern
blotting, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha
(eEF1A) as the main nuclear protein that specifically
recognizes these oligonucleotides.Western blotting and
supershift assays confirmed the nature of this protein and
its involvement in forming a cytotoxicity-related complex
According to the National Cancer Institute, cancer continues to take
a devastating toll. Among women in the United States, cancer is the
second-leading cause of death after heart disease. Medical researchers
fighting against cancer have made significant progress, however. In
recent years, cancer incidence rates have been stable, and—although
the annual rate of decline in cancer death rates among men have been
twice as large as the declines in women—mortality has decreased for
ten of the top 15 cancers in women.
This book is about what we consider the essentials of human nutrition.
The science of human nutrition deals with all the effects on people of any component
found in food. This starts with the physiological and biochemical processes involved
in nourishment—how substances in food provide energy or are converted into body
tissues, and the diseases that result from insufficiency or excess of essential nutrients
(malnutrition). The role of food components in the development of chronic degenerative
disease like coronary heart disease, cancers, dental caries, etc.
Over the past 20 years, technological advances in molecular biology have
proven invaluable to the understanding of the pathogenesis of human cancer.
The application of molecular technology to the study of cancer has not only
led to advances in tumor diagnosis, but has also provided markers for the
assessment of prognosis and disease progression. The aim of Molecular Analysis
of Cancer is to provide a comprehensive collection of the most up-to-date
techniques for the detection of molecular changes in human cancer.
Cell culture is practiced extensively throughout the world today. The techniques
required to allow cells to grow and be maintained outside the body have been developed
throughout the 20th century. In the 50 years since the publication of the first
human cancer cell line, HeLa (1), thousands of cell lines representing most of the
spectrum of human cancer have been derived. These have provided tools to study in
depth the biochemistry and molecular biology associated with individual cancer types
and have helped enormously in our understanding of normal as well as cancer cell
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Histone modification enhances the effectiveness of IL-13 receptor targeted immunotoxin in murine models of human pancreatic cancer
The potential value of artificial neural networks (ANNs) as a predictor of malignancy has
now been widely recognised. The concept of ANNs dates back to the early part of the 20th
century; however, their latest resurrection started in earnest in the 1980s when they were
applied to many problems in the areas of pattern recognition, control, and optimisation.