Xem 1-20 trên 48 kết quả Cancers spread
  • Some people believe that if cancer has spread to other parts of the body (called metastatic cancer), it is the same as advanced cancer. This is not necessarily true. You can have widespread cancer, but it can still be treatable and sometimes curable. Examples of this are testicular cancer and certain types of leukemia and lymphoma.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 83. Cancer of the Skin Melanoma Pigmented lesions are among the most common findings on skin examination. The challenge is to distinguish cutaneous melanomas, which may be lethal, from the remainder, which with rare exceptions are benign. Examples of malignant and benign pigmented lesions are shown in Fig. 83-1. Figure 83-1 Atypical and malignant pigmented lesions. The most common melanoma is superficial spreading melanoma (not pictured). A.

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  • Ovarian cancer can no longer be considered one disease entity, but a heterogeneous group of diseases. Our understanding of its clinical and molecular complexity is improving nota‐ bly over the last decade. This is of utmost importance when it comes to determine the most adequate treatment strategy for each individual patient. Despite not being the most frequent tumor, ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate amongst gynecological cancers.

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  • Clinical Characteristics There are four types of cutaneous melanoma (Table 83-2). In three of these—superficial spreading melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma—the lesion has a period of superficial (so-called radial) growth during which it increases in size but does not penetrate deeply. It is during this period that the melanoma is most capable of being cured by surgical excision. The fourth type—nodular melanoma—does not have a recognizable radial growth phase and usually presents as a deeply invasive lesion, capable of early metastasis.

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  • Table 84-2 Definition of TNM–Nasopharynx Primary Tumor (T) Stage Grouping TX Cannot assessed be 0 Stage Tis N0 M0 T0 No evidence I Stage T1 N0 M0 Tis Carcinoma in situ IIA Stage T2a N0 M0 T1 Tumor confined IIB Stage T1 N1 M0 to the nasopharynx T2 Tumor extends to soft tissues T2 N1 M0 T2a extends to Tumor the T2a N1 M0 oropharynx and/or nasal cavity parapharyngeal extension w/o T2b Any tumor with extension parapharyngeal T2b N1 M0 T3 Tumor involves T2b N1 M0 bony structures and/or paranasal sinuses T4 Tumor intracranial with e...

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  • No matter where a cancer may spread, it is always named for the place where it started. For example, breast cancer that has spread to the liver is still called breast cancer, not liver cancer. Likewise, prostate cancer that has spread to the bone is metastatic prostate cancer, not bone cancer. Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast cancer are very different diseases. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their particular kind of cancer.

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  • When cancer spreads from its original place to another part of the body, the new tumor has the same kind of abnormal cells and the same name as the original tumor. For example, if ovarian cancer spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually ovarian cancer cells. The disease is metastatic ovarian cancer, not liver cancer. For that reason, it is treated as ovarian cancer, not liver cancer. Doctors call the new tumor “distant” or metastatic disease.

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  • Figure 82-1 A. Papules related to Escherichia coli bacteremia in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia. B. The same lesion the following day. Candidemia (Chap. 196) is also associated with a variety of skin conditions and commonly presents as a maculopapular rash. Punch biopsy of the skin may be the best method for diagnosis. Cellulitis, an acute spreading inflammation of the skin, is most often caused by infection with group A Streptococcus or Staphylococcus aureus, virulent organisms normally found on the skin (Chap. 119).

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  • Gastric (Nonlymphoid) Sarcoma Leiomyosarcomas and GISTs make up 1–3% of gastric neoplasms. They most frequently involve the anterior and posterior walls of the gastric fundus and often ulcerate and bleed. Even those lesions that appear benign on histologic examination may behave in a malignant fashion. These tumors rarely invade adjacent viscera and characteristically do not metastasize to lymph nodes, but they may spread to the liver and lungs. The treatment of choice is surgical resection. Combination chemotherapy should be reserved for patients with metastatic disease.

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  • Radiation therapy to the pelvis is recommended for patients with rectal cancer because it reduces the 20–25% probability of regional recurrences following complete surgical resection of stage II or III tumors, especially if they have penetrated through the serosa.

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  • The regional draining lymph nodes for the testis are in the retroperitoneum, and the vascular supply originates from the great vessels (for the right testis) or the renal vessels (for the left testis). As a result, the lymph nodes that are involved first by a right testicular tumor are the interaortocaval lymph nodes just below the renal vessels. For a left testicular tumor, the first involved lymph nodes are lateral to the aorta (para-aortic) and below the left renal vessels. In both cases, further nodal spread is inferior, contralateral, and, less commonly, above the renal hilum.

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  • Cancer can be defined as a disease in which a group of abnormal cells grow uncontrollably by disregarding the normal rules of cell division. Normal cells are constantly subject to signals that dictate whether the cell should divide, differentiate into another cell or die. Cancer cells develop a degree of autonomy from these signals, resulting in uncontrolled growth and proliferation. If this proliferation is allowed to continue and spread, it can be fatal. In fact, almost 90% of cancer-related deaths are due to tumour spreading – a process called metastasis....

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  • Most cancers found in the adrenal gland did not start there and are not adrenal cancers. Instead, they start in other organs or tissues and then spread (metastasize) through the bloodstream to the adrenal glands. For example, lung cancers, melanomas, and breast cancers often spread to the adrenals. Even when other cancers spread to the adrenals; however, they are still named after the place they started and are treated like other cancers that start in the same place. They are not considered adrenal cancer. Their treatment is described in our documents on these cancers. ...

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  • Different types of cancer can behave very differently. For example, lung cancer and breast cancer are very different diseases. They grow at different rates and respond to different treatments. That is why people with cancer need treatment that is aimed at their own kind of cancer. Not all tumors are cancerous. Tumors that aren't cancer are called benign (be-nine). Benign tumors can cause problems-- they can grow very large and press on healthy organs and tissues. But they cannot grow into other tissues.

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  • are there breast cancer cells in your lymph nodes? Your doctor will examine your lymph nodes to see if they contain cancer. Having cancer cells in the lymph nodes under your arm is associated with an increased risk of the cancer spreading. Lymph nodes are filters along the lymph fluid channels. Lymph fluid leaves the breast and eventually goes back into the bloodstream. The lymph nodes try to catch and trap cancer cells before they reach other parts of the body. When lymph nodes are free, or clear, of cancer, the test results are called negative.

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  • Being diagnosed with cancer is devastating. But when the cancer cells have to spread to form secondary colonies, the prognosis for the patient is worse. If meaningful improvements in survival are to occur, then control of metastasis will be a foundation. Relatively little is known about the control of the metastatic process at the molecular level. This volume begins to explore our current knowledge regarding the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms controlling the metastatic phenotype.

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  • The head and neck is a region of considerable anatomical and functional complexity, making the accurate staging of a head and neck neoplasm a challenging task. The clinician often detects pathology, but may not appreciate, based on the physical examination, the entire submucosal tumor extension, nor the possible regional and distant disease spread. The introduction of CT and MRI has revolutionized head and neck radiology. Current radiological modalities provide a reliable visualization of the head and neck structures to an unprecedented level of detail.

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  • Exchange involves the transfer of ownership -- goods for money or goods for goods. Most exchange transactions are concluded with the payment of money, although some barter exchange is practiced among countries having centrally controlled trading agencies. Many people and agencies are engaged in the exchange of agricultural products. The courts stand ready to enforce rules of fair dealing. Commercial banks provide credit for the shipment of products and to finance processing and storage. The futures market is available to help in spreading the market price risk.

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  • The rise and rapid spread of HIV infection, the resurgence of other serious communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and hepatitis and the increasing recognition that prisons are inappropriate receptacles for people with drug or alcohol dependence and mental health problems have thrust prison health high on the public health agenda. As WHO has emphasized, any national health strategy must include prison policies that address these serious health problems.

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  • In this book dealing with the lung health, the authors focus on various fields, spreading from pulmonary oncogenesis, to inflammatory and parasitic lung diseases. The first section deals with the fundamental research on lung cancer that is mandatory for the development of novel and early biomarkers for diagnosis of the lung cancer. This development could be enhanced using experimental models despite the species barrier. Mouse models can help us understand the sequence of events involved in human lung neoplasia and their underlying molecular mechanisms....

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