This book "New Insights into Toxicity and Drug Testing" covers all emerging technologies (profiling technologies, 3D cultures, next generation sequencing etc.), available methods and models to evaluate candidate drugs and medicinal plants with reference to toxicity, drug testing and development. This book is an original contribution of experts from different parts of the globe and the in-depth information will be a significant resource for scientists and physicians who are directly dealing with drugs / medicines and human life....
Great efﬁciencies have been achieved in the drug discovery process as a result of technological advances in target identiﬁcation, high-throughput screening, high-throughput organic synthesis, just-in-time in vitro ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion), and early pharmacokinetic screening of drug leads. These advances, spanning target selection all the way through to clinical candidate selection, have placed greater and greater demands on the analytical community to develop robust high-throughput methods.
For decades we have been learning about the interplay between tumors and the
immune system. Our knowledge seemed somewhat incomplete and indirect, like
listening to the ocean waves through a shell. Only recently, cancer immunotherapy has
started to become a reality, with Provenge (Dendreon Corporation, WA), an
autologous antigen-presenting cell preparation, earning the approval of United States
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of advanced prostate cancer in
The modern drug discovery process, in general, involves the identiﬁcation of a biochemical target (usually protein target), screening of synthetic compounds or compound libraries from combinatorial chemistry/natural sources for a lead compound, and optimization of the lead compound (activity, selectivity, pharmacokinetics, etc.) for recommending a potential clinical candidate.
This paper presents SIENA, an event notiﬁcation service that we have de-
signed and implemented to maximize both expressiveness and scalability. In
Section 3we describe the service’s formally deﬁned application programming in-
terface,which is an extension of the familiar publish/subscribe protocol [Birman
1993]. Several candidate server topologies and protocols are presented in Sec-
Our first order of business is to make certain that we are a good fit to work together. Part of that
assessment will be a candid discussion about your expectations and goals. If the goals, or the timeframe
for their achievement are unreasonable and depend too much on lucky breaks and good fortune,
IdeaBridge will politely pass on the opportunity. We’ve worked extremely hard to build a stellar reputation
for consistent results, and therefore will not accept projects or assignments from any group that has
unrealistic expectations. If nothing else, we can help ground you in...
If you have obtained competitive bids, the proposals are the grounds for your decision and
ultimately for the contract. In the case of a sole-source contract, the proposal is the basis for
agreement between client and conservator on the scope of work, fee, schedule, and other
To evaluate proposals in either case, form a small advisory committee of knowledgeable
people who can assess the technical merits of each conservator’s experience, methods and
materials, schedule, and fee.
Association studies from north India probing
multiple loci across the spectrum of candidate cytokine
genes are scanty. The present study, therefore, was aimed
to bring in focus certain unexplored polymorphisms
in the context of tuberculosis susceptibility in north
Indian population. The role and importance of genetic
background in tuberculosis has now become univocal
with ethnicity playing a crucial role. Probing new loci
relating to tuberculosis susceptibility could suggest
novel approach in pharmacogenomics and therapy
to combat this pathogen.
In many respects man’s reaction to his environment - that is his behaviour, is principally
a function of his central nervous system. Over the last few decades there have
been considerable advances in the understanding of the organisation and functions
of this system, but much remains to be discovered concerning its basic biochemistry
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for
their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures
approved by the NRC’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of
this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will
assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and
to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence,
and responsiveness to the study charge.
In the modern pharmaceutical industry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the major and integral analytical tool applied in all stages of drug discovery, development, and production. The development of new chemical entities (NCEs) is comprised of two major activities: drug discovery and drug development. The goal of the drug discovery program is to investigate a plethora of compounds employing fast screening approaches, leading to generation of lead compounds and then narrowing the selection through targeted synthesis and selective screening (lead optimization).
enzymes are powerful biological catalysts that are essential for the proper maintenance and propagation of any organism. these properties make them excellent candidates as therapeutic targets to combat diseases of either genetic or pathogenic origin. in this regard, one goal of molecular medicine is to develop and implement effective agents that can modulate the activity of various enzymes involved in essential biological pathways. the process of developing and characterizing these small molecules, i.e., rational drug design, often requires a priori knowledge of the enzyme in question....
Preformulation is a bridge between discovery and development where development scientists participate in selection and optimization of lead compounds. It is very critical at this stage to evaluate the developability of potential drug candidates in order to select new chemical entities and decrease the number of failures during future drug development. On average, only one out of ten new chemical entities (NCE) entering ﬁrstin-human testing reaches registration, approval, and marketing stage.
In the drug discovery area, a compound with desired therapeutic properties is identiﬁed, and its structure may be modiﬁed by synthetic alterations to enhance potency and speciﬁcity or to decrease toxicity and undesired side effects. The lead drug candidate is then transitioned into the drug development area. Only small amounts of drug (typically less than a gram) are required to support the required studies in the Drug Discovery area. However larger amounts are required to support the studies conducted in the Drug Development area.
The Changing World of Advertising and Promotion
Nearly everyone in the modern world is influenced to some degree by advertising and other forms of promotion. Organizations in both the private and public sectors have learned that the ability to communicate effectively and efficiently with their target audiences is critical to their success. Advertising and other types of promotional messages are used to sell products and services as well as to promote causes, market political candidates, and deal with societal problems such as alcohol and drug abuse.
Multiple Variants Modulating Drug Effects As this discussion makes clear, for each drug with a defined mechanism of action and disposition pathways, a set of "candidate genes," in which polymorphisms may mediate variable clinical responses, can be identified. Indeed, polymorphisms in multiple genes have been associated with variability in the effect of a single drug. CYP2C9 loss-of-function variants are associated with a requirement for lower maintenance doses of the vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant warfarin. In rarer (...
It happens all the time: a pharmaceutical or biotechnology company will spend ten years and hundreds of millions of dollars on a drug candidate that looks spectacular in animal models of a disease, only to see it fail during clinical trials, either because of unexpected adverse reactions in a small number of patients or a surprising lack of efficacy. For every drug that is approved, on average more than 6,000 new chemical substances are created. Only seven of these ever end up being tested in humans, and only three make it to Phase III clinical trials, the final step before...
Recently published genomic investigations of the human pathogenMyco-bacterium tuberculosishave revealed that genes coding the proteins involved
in riboflavin biosynthesis are essential for the growth of the organism.
Because the enzymes involved in cofactor biosynthesis pathways are not
present in humans, they appear to be promising candidates for the develop-ment of therapeutic drugs.
Highly active, small-molecule furin inhibitors are attractive drug candidates
to fend off bacterial exotoxins and viral infection. Based on the 22-residue,
active Lys fragment of the mung bean trypsin inhibitor, a series of furin
inhibitors were designed and synthesized, and their inhibitory activity
towards furin and kexin was evaluated using enzyme kinetic analysis.
Nearly everyone in the modern world is influenced to
some degree by advertising and other forms of promotion.
Organizations in both the private and public sectors
have learned that the ability to communicate effectively
and efficiently with their target audiences is critical to
their success. Advertising and other types of promotional
messages are used to sell products and services as well
as to promote causes, market political candidates, and
deal with societal problems such as alcohol and drug