Capillary electrophoresis

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  • Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography (MEKC) was employed to the analysis of aniline, phenol and 2,5-dinitrophenol using an end-column amperometric detector with a carbon cloth electrode. The current condition of separation is a solution of 25 mM Na2HPO4, 25 mM Na2B4O7, and 50 mM SDS (pH 9.11); applied voltage, 10 kV; hydrodynamic injection for 15 s at 15 cm; applied potential for electrochemical detection, 500 mV. Absorbance electropherograms is also recorded for comparison.

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  • In this study there were several important issues investigated namely, the process of dynamic coating of capillary surface with amines, denaturation of protein by urea, pH and composition of background electrolyte solution. In addition, instrumental parameters eg. voltage, capillary temperature, detection wavelength were also optimized.

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  • Although the technologies on chiral/enantiomer separation and stereoselective analysis have matured in the past ca. 20 years, the development of new, even more advanced chiral separation materials, mechanisms and methods still belong to the more challenging tasks in separation science and analytical chemistry. An analysis of recent trends indicates that capillary electrophoresis (CE) can show real advantages over chromatographic methods in ultratrace chiral determination of biologically active ionogenic compounds in complex matrices, including mostly biological ones....

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Capillary electrophoresis for the characterization of quantum dots after non-selective or selective bioconjugation with antibodies for immunoassay

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  • A protocol to follow the processing of angiotensin I into angiotensin II by rabbit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its inhibition by a novel natural antagonist, the leech osmoregulator factor (LORF) using capillary zonal electrophoresis is described. The experiment was carried out using the Beckman PACE system and steps were taken to determine (a) the migration profiles of angiotensin and its yielded peptides, (b) the minimal amount of angiotensin II detected, (c) the use of different electrolytes and (d) the concentration of inhibitor. ...

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  • The Hitachi SV1100 utilizes capillary electrophoresis on a microchip that is capable of rapidly sizing DNAfrag-ments. Reproducibility of electrophoresis in different channels was shown by comparing the migration times of the internal controls, DNAfragments of 100 and 800 bp. The range of DNAsizing for this microchip is between 100 and 800 bp, and accuracy in sizing of a 322 bp DNA fragment of a pUC118 PvuII digest was observed, inde-pendent of DNAconcentration. Although relatively good quantification of this fragment was observed with a DNA concentration of 1.

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  • Introduction: Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) ( Figure 4.1) has been being used as an analgesic-antipyretic for a long time; it is contained in many of over-the-counter drugs. Although ASA is relatively safe, various poisoning symptoms, such as lowered consciousness levels, hypotension, pulmonary edema and convulsion, were reported upon ingestion of a large amount of this drug [1]. For analysis of ASA, methods by HPLC [2–19], GC [20–23], GC/MS [24] and capillary electrophoresis [25–27] were reported; among these methods, HPLC is most popular. ...

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  • Nowadays, Chromatography is the most versatile and widespread technique employed in modern chemical analysis and plays a vital role in the advancement of chemistry, biology, medicine and related fields of research. Because of the inherent simplicity and ease of operation, it can be used together with a wide range of detection systems, including electrochemical, photometric and mass spectrometry, being an invaluable laboratory tool for the separation and identification of compounds.

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  • Introduction: Acetaminophen (paracetamol, APAP) ( Figure 3.1) has been being used as an excellent analgesic-antipyretic for a long time, and is included as an ingredient in many over-the-counter drugs of analgesics and cold drugs. However, when APAP is ingested in large amounts, it was reported to cause liver disorders [1]. For analysis of APAP, HPLC [2–18], LC/MS [19], LC/MS/MS [20], GC [21], GC/MS [22, 23] and capillary electrophoresis [24, 25] are being used. Among the methods, HPLC is most popular for its analysis.

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  • LIF (laser-induced fluorescence) is a very popular CE detector – These have ~0.01 attomole sensitivity for fluorescent molecules (e.g. derivatized proteins). Direct absorbance (UV-Vis) can be used for organics. For inorganics, indirect absorbance methods are used instead, where a absorptive buffer (e.g. chromate) is displaced by analyte ions – Detection limits are in the 50-500 ppb range. Alternative methods involving potentiometric and conductometric detection are also used – Potentiometric detection: a broad-spectrum ISE – Conductometric detection: like IC...

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  • The collected Chapters in this volume describe the current status of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) modification of proteins, peptides, oligonucleotides and small molecule drugs, the recent advances in conjugation chemistry, and new clinical products. The book provides an excellent update in this rapidly evolving field, and the comprehensive collection of Chapters complements well past reviews/volumes that have documented the evolution of PEGylation. For example, a reader new to this field is encouraged to gain the historical perspective by reading the following reviews [1–8].

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  • Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of nontypeableHaemophilus in¯uenzaestrain 1003 has been achieved by the application of high-®eld NMR techniques, ESI-MS, capillary electrophoresis coupled to ESI-MS, composition and linkage analyses on O-deacylated LPS and core oligosaccharide material. It was found that the LPS contains the common structural element of H.

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  • The LmbB1 protein, participating in the biosynthesis of lincomycin,was heterologously expressed inEscherichia coli, purified in its active form, and characterized as a dimer of identical subunits. Methods for purification and analysis of the LmbB1 reaction product were developed. Molecular mass and fragmentation pattern of the product revealed by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry were in agree-ment with its proposed structure, 4-(3-carboxy-3-oxo-propenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid.

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  • This book is written for the practicing pharmaceutical scientist involved in absorption–distribution–metabolism–excretion (ADME) measurements who needs to communicate with medicinal chemists persuasively, so that newly synthesized molecules will be more ‘‘drug-like.’’ ADME is all about ‘‘a day in the life of a drug molecule’’ (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion).

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  • A detailed comparison between native chlorite dismutase from Ideonella dechloratans, and the recombinant version of the protein produced inEscherichia coli, suggests the presence of a covalent modification in the native enzyme. Although the native and recombinant N- and C-terminal sequences are identical, the enzymes display different electrophoretic mobilities, and produce different peptide maps upon digestion with trypsin and separation of fragments using capillary electrophoresis.

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  • Division of Medicinal and Natural Products Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Iowa, USA; 2Department of Autoimmunology, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark Synthetic peptides based on amino-acid residues 27–38 of human serum amyloid P component represent a novel type of heparin binders as they do not contain clusters of basic amino acids or other known features associated with protein or peptide heparin binding.

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  • Plain x-ray plays a limited role in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma. Abdominal radiographs are usually unnecessary. X-rays of the chest and pelvis are often obtained to evaluate for concurrent thoracic or pelvic injuries. Abnormal chest x-ray findings of pneumothorax and rib fractures are associated with intraabdominal injuries and are indications for abdominal imaging if a mechanism for multisystem trauma is present. Common findings include free abdominal air (pneumoperitoneum), pneumothorax, and hemothorax.

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  • In order to evaluate the ability of the cell-penetrating a-helical amphipathic model peptide KLALKLALKALK AALKLA-NH2 (MAP) to deliver peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) into mammalian cells, MAP was covalently linked to the 12-mer PNA 5¢-GGAGCAGGAAAG-3¢ directed against themRNAof the nociceptin/orphaninFQ receptor. The cellular uptake of both the naked PNA and its MAP-conjugate was studied by means of capillary electrophoresis combined with laser-induced fluorescence detection, confo-cal laser scanningmicroscopyandfluorescence-activatedcell sorting. ...

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  • The chaperone calreticulin is a highly conserved eukaryotic protein mainly located in the endoplasmic reticulum. It contains a free cysteine SH group but does not form disul-fide-bridged dimers under physiological conditions,indica-ting that the SH group may not be fully accessible in the native protein. Using PAGE,urea gradient gel electro-phoresis,capillary electrophoresis and MS,we show that dimerization through the SH group can be induced by lowering the pH to 5–6,heating,or under conditions that favour partial unfolding such as urea concentrations above 2.

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  • The uptake by mammalian cells of phosphorothioate oli-gonucleotides was compared with that of their respective complexes or conjugates with cationic, cell-penetrating model peptides of varying helix-forming propensity and amphipathicity. An HPLC-based protocol for the synthesis and purification of disulfide bridged conjugates in the 10– 100 nmol range was developed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in combination with gel-capillary electrophoresis and laser induced fluorescence detection (GCE-LIF) revealed cytoplasmic and nuclear accumula-tion in all cases. ...

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