Shortly after my arrival at the OECD in 1996, I came upon the study by Angus Maddison
“Monitoring the World Economy 1820–1992”. It is a fascinating and stimulating work providing a
complete coverage of the world economy during the period in question. It brought together data of
some 56 countries accounting for 93 per cent of the world output and 87 per cent of the world population
and world exports. It never left my desk. Probably I was not alone in my appreciation of this quite
extraordinary work, as I kept coming on references to it in the work of other authors....
In this short book, I try to outline the history of the European economy—which is somewhat different from an economic history of Eu-rope. By “European economy,” I mean a world economy in the sense of Fernand Braudel and Immanuel Wallerstein, one that is of course located in Europe and has some common aspects and some common institutions; one that is somewhat integrated, as its different parts are linked by trade and other relations more intensively than they are linked with other sys-tems; and one that achieves some kind of organic unity (despite diversity, which is typical of Europe)...
Comparing the total air pollution related health costs per capita (see Figure 14) the results of the
three countries stay within the same range, although the central estimates indicate differences between
the three countries. The highest per capita costs are shown for Austria.
For the road traffic-related health costs, the per capita results differ much less between the three
countries: The highest value is obtained in France with about 370 EUR per capita, followed by Austria
with about 360 EUR per capita and Switzerland with about 310 EUR per capita.
Despite ongoing domestic political tension, vulnerabilities in the
economy and continued volatility in global financial markets, Turkey
remains an attractive longer-term investment market, being the
second most populous country in Europe after Germany and the
sixth largest European economy. It has a young and growing
population of over 70 million – 43% of the Turkish population is
under the age of 25 and sizable migration to the country’s cities is
taking place. These demographic trends compare favourably against
those of aging Europe.
In 2011, for the privately insured who
were younger than 65 years of age, per
capita health care spending increased.
Per capita spending rose faster than
was seen in 2010, but less than ob-
served in 2009. By major service cate-
gory, per capita spending grew fastest
for facility claims from outpatient visits.
More than a third of per capita health
care dollars were spent on professional
procedures. For outpatient services
provided at other settings and prescrip-
tions, spending rose more slowly in
2011 than in 2010. Per capita health
care spending levels rose with age.