Capital standards

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  • The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity.......

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  • The Committee believes that a successful implementation of the revised Framework will provide banks and supervisors with critical experience necessary to address such challenges. The Committee understands that the IRB approach represents a point on the continuum between purely regulatory measures of credit risk and an approach that builds more fully on internal credit risk models. In principle, further movements along that continuum are foreseeable, subject to an ability to address adequately concerns about reliability, comparability, validation, and competitive equity....

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  • The C++ Standard Library A Tutorial and Reference Second Edition Nicolai M. Josuttis Upper Saddle River, NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San Francisco New York • Toronto • Montreal • London • Munich • Paris • Madrid Capetown • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. ...

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  • Throughout this publication we have made reference to IFRS 4, the Implementation Guidance and Basis for Conclusions accompanying the Standard, as well as other current statements of IFRS. Direct quotations from IFRSs are included in dark blue within the text. A column noted as Reference is included in the left margin of Sections 1 through 15 to enable users to identify the relevant paragraphs of IFRS 4, the Interpretation Guidance and Basis for Conclusions as well as references to other applicable Standards.

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  •  The objective of this standard is to develop a comprehensive homestay standard that can be adapted by ASEAN Member States as recommended in the ASEAN Tourism Strategic Plan (ATSP): 2011 – 2015 to create quality visitor experience by showcasing their rural resources in a presentable, safe, and attractive manner.

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  • “Risk concentrations are arguably the single most important cause of major problems in banks”.1 On the one hand, dealing with concentration risk is important for the survival of individual banks; therefore, banks should be interested in a proper management of risk concentrations on their own. On the other hand, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) has found that nine out of the thirteen analyzed banking crises were affected by risk concentrations,2 which shows that this issue is important for the stability of the whole banking system.

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  • The effort to achieve a single set of global accounting standards has gained significant momentum during the past three years. The logic behind the development of a single set of high-quality global accounting standards for the world’s integrating capital markets has been evident for some time.

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  • The CAPM rattled investment professionals in the 1960s and its commanding importance still reverberates today." --Dow Jones Asset Management. Nearly 30 years ago, PORTFOLIO THEORY AND CAPITAL MARKETS laid the groundwork for such investment standards as modern portfolio theory, derivatives pricing and investment, and equity index funds, among others.

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  • One way to motivate interest in vocabulary is to teach students about the origins of the English words we use today in educated speech and writing. Students in successful English language arts classrooms learn about the way the English language has developed across time and place. The English language has the largest vocabulary of all the world’s languages. Furthermore, it is still growing, because that is the nature of a living language. The English language reflects the influence of every language community with which English-speaking people have interacted.

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  • Every student of finance or applied economics learns the lessons of Franco Modigliani and Merton Miller. Their landmark paper, published in 1958, laid out the basic underpinnings of modern finance and these two distinguished academics were both subsequently awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics. Simply stated, companies create value when they generate returns that exceed their costs. More specifically, the returns of successful companies will exceed the risk-adjusted cost of the capital used to run the business.

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  • Accounting is the most employable, sought-after major for 2009, according to entrylevel job site CollegeGrad.com. One reason for this interest is found in the statement by former Secretary of the Treasury and Economic Advisor to the President, Lawrence Summers. He noted that the single-most important innovation shaping our capital markets was the idea of generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). We agree with Mr. Summers. Relevant and reliable financial information is a necessity for viable capital markets.

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  • In a world where ownership is divorced from control, characterised by economic and geo-political uncertainty, our companion text Portfolio Theory and Financial Analyses (PTFA henceforth) began with the following question. We then observed that if investors are rational and capital markets are efficient with a large number of constituents,economic variables (such as share prices and returns) should be random, which simplifies matters.

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  • This book has been written for business owners and managers who want to refine the accounting and financial operations of their companies. It provides detailed information about how to run these operations, track cash flows, conduct analyses, analyze key financial information, create a corporate risk management strategy, and manage tax liabilities—in short, all of the key accounting and financial information required to operate a small business.

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  • One of the most frequent questions we get at Standard & Poor’s is, “What are the criteria for being added to an S&P Index?” First and foremost, S&P Indices are not rules-based; all changes are fully discretionary and are determined by the Index Committee based upon public information. Companies may not apply for inclusion. The Standard & Poor’s Index Committee examines five main criteria when looking for Index candidates: trading analysis, liquidity, ownership, fundamental analysis, market capitalization, and sector representation.

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  • The Project Board is the most senior level of Project Organization and has the responsibility of ensuring the continued integrity of the project from all points of view. The structure of the Project Board reflects the tripartite responsibility that exists in any project, namely the Business, Customer, and Technical interests. The Board should be prepared to recommend termination of the project if necessary.

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  • With youth, marketers have tapped into an audience that is particularly vulnerable to the messages and tactics of the food and beverage industry. For many low-income youth, there is little time or money for structured, healthy meals in the presence of an adult. Marketers have capitalized on this situation by using a number of marketing channels to reach children and adolescents. These span television advertising, in-school marketing, product placements in movies and television programs, kids’ clubs, the Internet, toys...

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  • In early 1979 Martin Feldstein suggested that the general approach of Mervyn King's Public Policy and the Corporation (1977) could be used to compare effective marginal tax rates for several different countries.

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  • Electronic formats such as HTML, XML, and XBRL are open standards 43 that define or “tag” data using standard definitions. The tags establish a consistent structure of identity and context. This consistent structure can be recognized and processed by a variety of different software applications. In the case of HTML, the standardized tags enable Web browsers to present Web sites’ embedded text and information in a predictable format.

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  • Since the 1980s many funds charge 12b-1 fees, which are used to pay for marketing and distribution costs and are included in the fund's expense ratio. Many funds offer multiple share classes (such as A, B, or C classes) with different combinations of loads and 12b-1 fees. To approximate the total cost of mutual fund shares, we aggregate all the costs incurred by fund shareholders using the now standard total ownership cost (TOC) measure introduced by Sirri and Tufano (1998).

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