Capital structures supported

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  • The process of bank deleveraging is expected to increase in 2012 with a pipeline of opportunities, such as large loan portfolios, continuing to materialize. With bank capital structures supported through unconventional means, it may require a further uncontrolled external shock to significantly accelerate the deleveraging process. Opportunities for investors will, however, continue to emerge with capital strategy expected to be a key driver of an increase in transaction activity.

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  • In one way or another, business activity must be financed. Without finance to support their fixed assets and working capital requirements, businesses could not exist. There are three primary sources of finance for companies: ● a cash surplus from operating activities ● new equity funding ● borrowing from bank and non-bank sources. Non-bank sources are mainly investors in the capital markets who subscribe for bonds and other securities issued by companies.

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  • Contracts tend to use a single earnings number that is either the reported earnings or a transformation of reported earnings. For example, private debt contracts use reported earnings with some GAAP measurement rules "undone" (e.g., equity accounting for subsidiaries -see Leftwich, 1983, p. 25). And, CEO bonus plans use earnings (or transformations of earnings such as returns on invested capital) to determine 80% of CEO bonuses (Hay, 1991; Holthausen, Larcker and Sloan, 1995).

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  • Unlike in dry milling, where the entire mash is fermented, in wet milling only the starch is fermented. The starch is then cooked, or liquefied, and an enzyme added to hydrolyze, or segment, the long starch chains. In dry milling, the mash, which still contains all the feed coproducts, is cooked and an enzyme added. In both systems a second enzyme is added to turn the starch into a simple sugar, glucose, in a process called saccharification. Saccharification in a wet mill may take up to 48 hours, though it usually requires less time, depending on the amount of enzyme used.

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  • The following sections provide an overview of the technical and qualitative characteristics of a wide range of alternative fuels that can replace coal in cement kilns. These fuels include agricultural and non-agricultural biomass, chemical and hazardous wastes, petroleum-based wastes, and miscellaneous waste fuels. Each of these alternatives are described in detail, including a discussion of average substitution rates, energy and water content of the fuels, carbon dioxide emissions factors, and change in carbon emissions per ton1 of coal replacement.

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  • If you’re an absentee landlord — or just too busy to handle maintenance — a property manager may be a good solution. This third-party manager runs the place, does the bookkeeping, scouts out the best repair people, and takes those 3 a.m. phone calls. In addition, the manager collects monthly rents and even leases the property for you. While they remove all the burdens from your shoulders, they come at a price. You can expect to pay 5% to 10% of your gross income, and even more if additional services are performed.

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  • Since the financial crisis, there has been renewed interest in documenting the balance- sheet positions of financial institutions. We share the important goal of this literature: to come up with data on positions that will inform the theoretical modeling of these insti- tutions, as called for by Franklin Allen in his 2001 AFA presidential address. Adrian and Shin (2011) investigate the behavior of Value-at-Risk measures reported by investment banks.

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  • We used t-tests with robust standard errors (to account for clustering caused by multiple nutrient comparisons within studies) to test the null hypothesis of no evidence of a difference between organically and conventionally produced food in content of nutrients and other substances. P-values were calculated to determine the significance of observed differences; p-values of less than 0.05 were used as a basis for evidence of significant differences between organically and conventionally produced foodstuffs.

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  • Furthermore, when lenders institute non-interest charges such as fees to compensate for interest rate ceilings, they effectively raise the cost of credit for all successful borrowers. Therefore, while a ceiling may reduce the explicit price of credit (interest rate), it may not result in lower overall costs of borrowing even for those able to obtain loans. Additionally, non-interest charges make it more complicated for customers to comprehend the total cost of borrowing and more difficult to make well-informed credit decisions.

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  • The field of LRSPs cited by the second highest number of respondents was, broadly speaking, asset identification/categorisation. This includes, for example, the designation of permissible investments and/or required investments for mutual funds as well as the establishment of, and exceptions to, investment concentration limits for particular types of assets. In most cases, member jurisdictions reported that credit ratings were used in both the banking and securities sectors.

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  • A rigid, change-resistant process will also tend to produce mediocre products. Customers may get what they first ask for, but is it what they really want once they see the product begin to emerge? By gathering all the requirements up front and having them set in stone with little chance of change, the product is condemned to be only as good as the initial idea, instead of being the best it could be once the team knows more about the possibilities. Many users of the Waterfall experience these shortcomings again and again, but it seems like such a logical approach,...

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  • The connection between receptivity and intensely motivated activity is further established when we appreciate that an arcane definition of “pas- sion,” from the Latin “pati,” is suffering. Both passion and suffering mean to experience intensely while being acted upon by the world. It is to let something happen to oneself and to bear the weight of its conse- quences. Far from being destructive, passion and suffering are associated with heightened vitality and renewed life. ...

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  • Federal securities laws also require that public companies have the financial statements they prepare audited by an independent public accountant. The independent public accountant’s audit is critical to the financial reporting process because the audit subjects companies’ financial statements to scrutiny on behalf of shareholders and creditors to whom company management is accountable. The auditor is the independent link between management and those who rely on the financial statements.

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  • Another of the initial ideas had the welcome mat track the motion of people across it and respond to this in some way. This was first tried using amat with electric-field-sensing electrodes and a projected im- age that followed the path of the person walking across it. Issues of robustness for this tracking method caused this idea to be dropped as well.

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  • Our approach to defining a security protocol for sensor networks is resource driven and factors in the trade offs between levels of security and the requisite power and computational resources. Primarily, we envision a scenario where a protected perimeter based on sensors is dynamically deployed. However, similar scenarios could be envisioned in an environment where the topology is well known in advance and the sensor network is pre- configured. Our operating paradigm is where data is reported to a computationally robust central location such as a base station or network controller....

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  • School bond elections receive little attention in political science or education policy literature, and the research that does exist is based on the observations of a single or a hand full of elections. Given the importance of bond elections as a revenue generating mechanism for schools as well as being one of the only cases where citizens can directly make decisions in regard to school district policy, we believe that more attention should be paid to this important policy process.

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  • There are different approaches to classify intangible resources. Edvinsson / Malone and Stew- art classify in Human Capital, Structural Capital and Customer Capital. 15 Bontis uses Rela- tional Capital in a wider sense instead of Customer Capital 16 and Sveiby classifies in internal structure, external structure and people’s competence. 17 The workforce “Intangibles in Ac- counting” separates seven categories of intangible resources.

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  • At the other extreme (in terms of “weight”) are the Intermediate Remote regions, of which there are only 23. They account for only 2% of land area, the same proportion of agricultural land, and of population and GDP. The Predominantly Rural Accessible group is the second largest (264 regions). It accounts for roughly a third of both total area and of agricultural land. However these regions contain only a quarter of the “non-urban region” population of the EU, and produce only 22% of its GDP. Finally, 147 regions are classified as Predominantly Rural Remote.

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  • During the first year, usually you’ll be exposed to full-year sequences in both micro and macroeconomics, usually with an econometrics sequence. (Note that this is more than enough to keep a student entertained throughout the first year.) If you come from a very competitive undergraduate / master’s program, chances are you are familiar a great deal of the material. If not, now it’s the time to learn it well. Take your time to do so; it’s not a race against time or your classmates to see who can master the material first. ...

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  • There are many different types of housing in Canada. Housing types are similar across the country. Often, different words describe the same type of housing in different parts of the country. In Canada, each level of a house or a building is a storey. A storey is one level. The ground level or ground floor is the first storey, the second floor is the second storey. A basement is not a storey. Canadian houses almost always have finished or unfinished basements. A basement is not the same as a cellar. To Canadians, a cellar is an unheated storage space below ground.

    pdf51p can_thai 10-12-2012 20 1   Download

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