Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp đề tài: Biomass increment and carbon balance of ash (Fraxinus excelsior) trees in an experimental stand in northeastern France...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: A model of light interception and carbon balance for sweet chestnut coppice (Castanea sativa Mill.)...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp quốc tế đề tài: EMILION, a tree functional-structural model: Presentation and first application to the analysis of branch carbon balance...
LIFE IN EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE presents a formidable challenge to land plants. On the one hand, the atmosphere is the source of carbon dioxide, which is needed for photosynthesis. Plants therefore need ready access to the atmosphere. On the other hand, the atmosphere is relatively dry and can dehydrate the plant. To meet the contradictory demands of maximizing carbon dioxide uptake while limiting water loss, plants have evolved adaptations to control water loss from leaves, and to replace the water lost to the atmosphere.
In this important new book and presents the quintessential guide for gas engineers, emphasizing the practical aspects of natural gas production. Readers will learn to incorporate cutting-edge research in estimating reserves, evaluating the performance of fractured wells, processing gas, and material balance analysis; learn to evaluate future performance of gas reservoirs; learn to improve the performance of gas wells; and more.
IN CHAPTER 5 WE DISCUSSED plants’ requirements for mineral nutrients and light in order to grow and complete their life cycle. Because living organisms interact with one another and their environment, mineral nutrients cycle through the biosphere. These cycles involve complex interactions, and each cycle is critical in its own right. Because the amount of matter in the biosphere remains constant, energy must be supplied to keep the cycles operational. Otherwise increasing entropy dictates that the flow of matter would ultimately stop.
This ancient Native American proverb and what it implies resonates
today as it has become increasingly obvious that people’s actions
and interactions with the environment affect not only living conditions
now, but also those of many generations to follow. Humans must
address the effect they have on the Earth’s climate and how their choices
today will have an impact on future generations.
WATER PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE in the life of the plant. For every gram of organic matter made by the plant, approximately 500 g of water is absorbed by the roots, transported through the plant body and lost to the atmosphere. Even slight imbalances in this flow of water can cause water deficits and severe malfunctioning of many cellular processes. Thus, every plant must delicately balance its uptake and loss of water. This balancing is a serious challenge for land plants. To carry on photosynthesis, they need to draw carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but doing so exposes them to...
LIFE ON EARTH ULTIMATELY DEPENDS ON ENERGY derived from the sun. Photosynthesis is the only process of biological importance that can harvest this energy. In addition, a large fraction of the planet’s energy resources results from photosynthetic activity in either recent or ancient times (fossil fuels). This chapter introduces the basic physical principles that underlie photosynthetic energy storage and the current understanding of the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus (Blankenship 2002). The term photosynthesis means literally “synthesis using light.
Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, and ozone, play an
important role in balancing the temperature of the Earth’s surface by absorbing and
emitting radiation within the thermal infrared range from the source. However, with
the enormous burning of fossil fuels from the industrial revolution, the concentration
of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has greatly increased.
THE CONVERSION OF SOLAR ENERGY to the chemical energy of organic compounds is a complex process that includes electron transport and photosynthetic carbon metabolism (see Chapters 7 and 8). Earlier discussions of the photochemical and biochemical reactions of photosynthesis should not overshadow the fact that, under natural conditions, the photosynthetic process takes place in intact organisms that are continuously responding to internal and external changes. This chapter addresses some of the photosynthetic responses of the intact leaf to its environment....
PHOTOSYNTHESIS PROVIDES the organic building blocks that plants (and nearly all other life) depend on. Respiration, with its associated carbon metabolism, releases the energy stored in carbon compounds in a controlled manner for cellular use. At the same time it generates many carbon precursors for biosynthesis. In the first part of this chapter we will review respiration in its metabolic context, emphasizing the interconnections and the special features that are peculiar to plants.
The narrative behind Simplified Ecosystem Capital
Accounts (SECA): Ecosystems can be described as
capital which delivers a bundle of services to people,
some of which are appropriated and incorporated
into products, accumulated and/or consumed.
Other services are public goods of common benefit
to the economy and human wellbeing. Altogether,
these ecosystem services depend on ecosystem
capital regeneration which is in turn influenced by
ecosystem services consumption.
The Imprint of Species Turnover on Old-Growth Forest Carbon Balances – Insights From a Trait-Based Model of Forest Dynamics
Christian Wirth and Jeremy W. Lichstein
Succession is the process that eventually transforms a young forest into an oldgrowth forest. Describing and analysing plant succession has been at the core of ecology since its early days
Nevertheless, it also seems likely that substantial demand for voluntary GHG
emission reductions can exist even where there are regulatory requirements. “Carbon
neutrality” has become a goal for many companies seeking to attract customers by
providing environmentally friendly products and services. Likewise, growing awareness
about climate change has sparked an interest among many individuals to do their part to
help solve the problem.
The Ecosystem Capital Physical Balance Sheet
brings together the physical ecosystem assets (from
Table [F1]) and the physical debts or liabilities that
the economy contracts to future generation when
degrading nature. This concept of physical liability
does not exist in the SNA where both financial and
non-financial assets are balanced by debts which
are all recorded in the financial tables. This practice
conforms to the analysis of the economic system.
A much cited simile coined by Alan Greenspan (2000) is that bond markets can act like a “spare tyre”,
substituting for bank lending as a source of corporate funding at times when banks’ balance sheets
are weak and banks are rationing credit. This was the case in the early 1990s in the United States,
and there were some signs of it in Hong Kong in the late 1990s, when domestic banks adopted a
conservative lending stance as property prices collapsed.3 Conversely, banks may substitute as a
source of funds when bond markets dry up, as occurred following the Russian default in 1998....
This table presents the calculation of Net Total
Ecosystem Capital Potential (NTECP) and
Net Change and Territorial Ecosystem Capital
Degradation (TECD). The starting point is given
by table [B]. The balancing item 'Net Ecosystem
Accessible Carbon Surplus' (NEACS) is taken as a
surrogate measure of the gross ecosystem capital
potential of inland, sea and atmosphere ecosystems.
In simplified accounts it covers the accessible
carbon of terrestrial ecosystems, sea (fisheries) and
the atmosphere's capacity to assimilate carbon.