This publication deals with mathematical modelling, dynamical process characteristics and properties. The intended audience of this book includes graduate students but can be of interest of practising engineers or applied scientists that are interested in modelling, identiﬁcation, and process control. s Prepared under the project TEMPUS, S JEP-11366-96, FLACE – STU Bratislava, TU Koˇice, ˇ ˇ UMB Bansk´ Bystrica, ZU Zilina
British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Dickmanns, Ernst Dieter Dynamic vision for perception and control of motion 1. Computer vision - Industrial applications 2. Optical detectors 3. Motor vehicles - Automatic control 4. Adaptive control systems I. Title 629’.046 ISBN-13: 9781846286377 Library of Congress Control Number: 2007922344 ISBN 978-1-84628-637-7 e-ISBN 978-1-84628-638-4 Printed on acid-free paper
In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. In the context of propulsion systems, an air-breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried rather than supplying an independent oxidizer, as in a rocket.