Carbon bonds

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  • Synthetic organic chemistry is equivalent to systematic making and breaking chemical bonds of which the manipulation of carbon-carbon bonds plays an extraordinary role in construction of an organic molecule. Traditionally this chemistry was carried out in organic solutions, however, water or partially aqueous solvents gain more and more significance in organic synthesis recently. To attempt a comprehensive description of this field would be a hopless venture these days, and this chapter gives only examples of the most important ways of carbon-carbon bond formation in aqueous media. ...

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  • The book "Developments in Electrochemistry" contains five feature articles in recent advanced electrochemistry. These selected feature articles emphasize physical phenomena rather than mathematical formalisms of electrochemistry.

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  • The extraordinary ability of the chemical element carbon to combine with itself and other chemical elements in different ways is the basis of organic chemistry and of life. This chemical versatility also gives rise to a rich diversity of structural forms of solid carbon. This introductory chapter is an attempt to survey the very wide range of carbon materials that is now available with emphasis on chemical bonding and microstructure.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Organic chemistry" has contents: Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids, enolate anions and enamines; benzene and the concept of aromaticity; reactions of benzene and its derivatives; catalytic carbon carbon bond formation; carbohydrates,...and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Organic chemistry" has contents: Functional derivatives of carboxylic acids, enolate anions and enamines; benzene and the concept of aromaticity; reactions of benzene and its derivatives; catalytic carbon carbon bond formation; carbohydrates,...and other contents.

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  • A much cited simile coined by Alan Greenspan (2000) is that bond markets can act like a “spare tyre”, substituting for bank lending as a source of corporate funding at times when banks’ balance sheets are weak and banks are rationing credit. This was the case in the early 1990s in the United States, and there were some signs of it in Hong Kong in the late 1990s, when domestic banks adopted a conservative lending stance as property prices collapsed.3 Conversely, banks may substitute as a source of funds when bond markets dry up, as occurred following the Russian default in 1998....

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  • In the mid-1990’s catastrophe bonds (CAT bonds), also named as Act of God or Insurance-linked bond, were developed to ease the transfer of catastrophe based insurance risk from insurers, reinsurers and corporations (sponsors) to capital market investors. CAT bonds are bonds whose coupons and principal payments depend on the performance of a pool or index of natural catastrophe risks, or on the presence of specified trigger conditions.

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  • The formation of carbon–carbon single bonds is of fundamental importance in organic synthesis. As a result, there is an ever-growing number of methods available for carbon–carbon bond formation. Many of the most useful procedures involve the addition of organometallic species or enolates to electrophiles, as in the Grignard reaction, the aldol reaction, the Michael reaction, alkylation reactions and coupling reactions. Significant advances in both main-group and transition-metal-mediated carbon–carbon bond-forming reactions have been made over the past decade.

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  • Carbonylation is one of the most important reactions leading to C-C bond formation. Direct synthesis of carbonyl compounds with CO gives rise to carboxylic acids and their derivatives, such as esters, amides, lactones, lactams etc. The process can be represented by the simple reactions of Scheme 5.1. In general, carbonylation proceeds via activation of a C-H or a C-X bond in the olefins and halides or alcohols, respectively, followed by COinsertion into the metal-carbon bond.

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  • Tham khảo sách '“frontmatter” materials science and engineering handbook ed. james', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • This publication deals with mathematical modelling, dynamical process characteristics and properties. The intended audience of this book includes graduate students but can be of interest of practising engineers or applied scientists that are interested in modelling, identification, and process control. s Prepared under the project TEMPUS, S JEP-11366-96, FLACE – STU Bratislava, TU Koˇice, ˇ ˇ UMB Bansk´ Bystrica, ZU Zilina

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  • Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes about a decade and a half ago by Sumio Iijima, the scientific community involved in various aspects of research related to carbon nanotubes and related technologies has observed a steady progress of the science, as is typical for any new and novel material.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Organic chemistry" presents the following contents: The basics-bonding and molecular structure; families of carbon compounds-functional groups, intermolecular forces, and infrared (IR) spectroscopy; acids and bases-an introduction to organic reactions and their mechanisms; nomenclature and conformations of alkanes and cycloalkanes; radical reactions;...

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  • Bonds will play a crucial role in financing the transition to a low-carbon, climate-resilient economy. Investor interest in the asset class is growing, but what is the current investment opportunity already out there? This report, commissioned by the HSBC Climate Change Centre of Excellence and prepared by the Climate Bonds Initiative, presents a first estimate of the outstanding global bond market size linked to key climate change themes, and examines future drivers and trends in the short term.

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  • British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Dickmanns, Ernst Dieter Dynamic vision for perception and control of motion 1. Computer vision - Industrial applications 2. Optical detectors 3. Motor vehicles - Automatic control 4. Adaptive control systems I. Title 629’.046 ISBN-13: 9781846286377 Library of Congress Control Number: 2007922344 ISBN 978-1-84628-637-7 e-ISBN 978-1-84628-638-4 Printed on acid-free paper

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  • The corporate bond market is less developed than most in emerging East Asia, with private placements dominating. At 3.9% of GDP, corporate bonds are comparable to levels in the Philippines and Indonesia, where corporate finance is less well-developed, as well as with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Viet Nam, where state-ownership remains dominant (Figure 5). That said, corporate bond markets remain small in much of the region with the exception of the Republic of Korea (Korea) and Hong Kong, China.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'microtechnology and photonics h ukita', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • Tham khảo sách 'the robot builder’s bonanzagordon bot kit', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, cơ khí - chế tạo máy phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • There are many classes of green bonds that have been issued or proposed, and they have taken on a confusing plethora of names such as green gilts, green retail bonds, green investment bank bonds, green infrastructure bonds, 46 multilateral development bank green bonds, green corporate bonds, green sectoral bonds, rainforest bonds and index-linked carbon bonds. One class of green bonds that has attracted attention recently is the climate bond, which is a type of green bond issued to raise capital for investments in projects which specifically mitigate or adapt to climate change.

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  • Governments and leading climate scientists agree that to avoid dangerous climate change, the global average temperature increase above pre-industrial levels must stay below 2oC.1 A ‘Low-Carbon Economy’ is defined as a world economy operating within these limits. Even to achieve a ‘likely’ probability – that is at least a 66% chance of success2 – of limiting temperature increase to this level requires global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to reduce by 50-70% by 2050 relative to 1990 levels.

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