Carbon society

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  • With a view to launch a low carbon society in Taiwan by 2050, the Executive Yuan ratified the Sustainable Energy Policy Guide in 2008. Taiwan is now committed to reduce CO2 emission back to its 2005 level by 2020. Then, back to the 2000 level by 2025, and finally achieving 50% of 2000 level by 2050. In addition, the EPA abiding by the Copenhagen Accord to summit Taiwanese NAMAs to the UNFCCC in 2010.

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  • Energy efficiency is finally a common sense term. Nowadays almost everyone knows that using energy more efficiently saves money, reduces the emissions of greenhouse gasses and lowers dependence on imported fossil fuels. We are living in a fossil age at the peak of its strength. Competition for securing resources for fuelling economic development is increasing, price of fuels will increase while availability of would gradually decline.

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  • The world’s climate is changing, and it will continue to change throughout the 21st century and beyond. Rising temperatures, new precipitation patterns, and other changes are already affecting many aspects of human society and the natural world. Climate change is transforming ecosystems at extraordinary rates and scales.

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  • established in the earliest history of the planet or as the result of a continuing supply of water and the constituents of sea water by degassing from the Earth’s interior. In 1951 W.W. Rubey, in his Presidential Address to the Geological Society of America, took the latter point of view. His arguments were colored by the knowledge available at that time of the age of the Earth and the age of the oldest rocks. Based on the analysis of lead isotopes in galenas, it was determined in the late 1940s that the Earth was about 3.2 billion years old.

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  • Although farmers do not receive any support from society for the contribution of the dehesa to welfare of society and the environment, they still conserve, prune and reforest oaks to maintain fruit production to feed and fatten Iberian pigs during the montanera or pannage. The ability of the Iberian pig breed to feed on acorns is a key feature in maintaining the dehesa.

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  • This book is intended to introduce the reader to examples of the range of practical problems posed by "Global Warming". It includes 11 chapters split into 5 sections. Section 1 outlines the recent changes in the Indian Monsoon, the importance of greenhouse gases to life, and the relative importance of changes in solar radiation in causing the changes.

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  • This report presents an overview of the field of building engineering physics and identifies opportunities for developments that will benefit society as a whole, as well as employers, universities, professional engineering institutions and in particular professionals who are following careers with building engineering physics as the basis. The report makes key recommendations for Government policy, academic and industry research directions and professional development in the field to achieve the skill levels necessary to deliver mass market low carbon buildings.

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  • Coal formation has been described as “an inefficiency in the carbon cycle,” (Barghoorn, 1952) when carbon from plants remains in terrestrial sediments and is not recycled to the atmosphere (Figure 1.1.1). Coal is, by definition, a readily combustible rock containing more than 50% by weight and 70% by volume of carbonaceous material (Schopf, 1966). Another definition describes coal as a combustible solid, usually stratified, which originated from the accumulation, burial, and compaction of partially decomposed vegetation in previous geologic ages (Hendricks, 1945)....

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  • Another critical barrier to access is discrimination by state laws or fertility clinics. Coverage in five of the states with insurance mandates 12 is only available to married couples, and four of these states 13 mandate use of the husband’s sperm, eliminating the possibility of donor sperm. Some fertility clinics only offer services to married couples as well. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine reports that fertility clinics vary in their willingness to treat single women, single men, lesbian couples, and gay male couples.

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  • The initiatives of government agencies and departments to use ICT tools and applications, Internet and mobile devices to support good governance, strengthen existing relationships and build new partnerships within civil society, are known as eGovernment initiatives. As with e-commerce, eGovernment represents the introduction of a great wave of technological innovation as well as government reinvention.

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  • Creating economic development is connected to increasing productivity and investments in areas such as education, nutrition and health. Population momentum joined with declining fertility rates provides a unique chance to spur economic development as the work force increases and the dependency burden of society decreases. However, this requires policies that create jobs for the growing work force.

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  • Wide agreement as to a clear and useful nomenclature is of great benefit in any field of science. The nomenclature here presented merits wide acceptance among terpene and other interested chemists because of the thorough way in which the careful work was done. Many versed in the chemistry of terpenes and many others experienced in naming chemical compounds were consulted. Full opportunity for criticism was offered.

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  • The dehesa is an ancient agrosilvopastoral system created by farmers to raise livestock, mainly on private lands. This system is highly appreciated by society and enjoys legal protection of the authorities because it is rich in biodiversity, a home to critically endangered species (Iberian lynx, imperial eagle and black vulture); a significant carbon sink; ethnologically and anthropologically valuable (culture and traditions); and is known for its scenic value.

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  • The ocean absorbs a significant portion of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from human activities, equivalent to about one-third of the total emissions for the past 200 years from fossil fuel combustion, cement production and land use change (Sabine et al., 2004). Uptake of CO2 by the ocean benefits society by moderating the rate of climate change but also causes unprecedented changes to ocean chemistry, decreasing the pH of the water and leading to a suite of chemical changes collectively known as ocean acidification.

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  • European society and the European economy do not yet exploit the full potential for resource efficiency. Much recyclable waste is either exported or sent to landfill. A lack of long-term frameworks holds back planning and investment, most obviously on a climate and energy framework beyond 2020, but also on long term sustainable use of key resources such as air, soil, energy, water, fish and biomass. At the same time, such frameworks can help to galvanise the innovation needed to exploit the potential of the transition to a low-carbon economy in areas like transport, energy and agriculture....

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  • The engineering profession must adapt to the new low carbon paradigm well ahead of society as a whole in order to provide the necessary leadership in design and the direction of policy. The professional engineering institutions and trade associations must all recognise a multi-disciplinary, problem solving approach that over-turns conventional partisan relationships and embraces a systemic approach to construction. All contributors to construction projects must be prepared to provide leadership in their area of expertise, but work with others to link knowledge across existing boundaries.

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  • Investing in infrastructure and innovation will be crucial for ensuring new sources of growth that better reflect the full value to economic activity to society. OECD analysis shows that greener growth can deliver important economic gains. These can be realised through enhanced resource productivity, reduced waste and energy consumption, and from ensuring that natural resources are priced to reflect their true value.

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  • The development of the catalytic converter was society's response to smog problems. The installation of this clever device in the exhaust system has been mandatory on all new cars sold in the United States since 1975. It accomplishes three tasks, with varying degree of effectiveness: it converts any CO in the combustion products to CO2. It also facilitates the combustion of any unburned hydrocarbons to carbon dioxide and water. Finally, it also helps to reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides by transforming them into the harmless nitrogen (N2).

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