Cardiac physiology

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  • Cardiovascular emergencies account for at least 30% of all medical emergencies. The impact of cardiovascular disease is felt in every hospital and every community. Whether you are drawn to critical care practice or not, you are bound to be confronted by acute cardiac events. Responding appropriately to cardiac emergencies requires a basic familiarity with cardiac anatomy and physiology, the ability to mobilize an advanced life support team, and the skills to perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)....

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  • It has been almost five years since our last edition was published. Much has happened in the world of cardiology and especially device therapy since then. A major advance has been the development of cardiac resynchronization therapy as heralded by the development of biventricular pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Cardiac resynchronization therapy represents an important new device therapy for patients with congestive heart failure.

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  • After completing this chapter, students will be able to: Describe the structural and functional properties of cardiac muscle, and explain how it differs from skeletal muscle; briefly describe the events of cardiac muscle cell contraction; name the components of the conduction system of the heart, and trace the conduction pathway;...

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  • Cardiothoracic surgical nursing has undergone immense change over the past decade, owing in part to professional, economic and societal changes. The profile of patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery has also changed as cardiothoracic surgery is performed upon the more elderly, the high-risk or those with co- morbidity. Although previously considered at too high a risk for surgery, improved surgical techniques, pharmacology and pre- and post-operative care have resulted in a successful outcome for many patients and a return to an improved quality of life....

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  • Cardiothoracic nursing has undergone great change over the last decade. With the continuing improvement of surgical techniques, pharmacology and pre- and post-operative care, there have been many new initiatives and innovations in the nature and practice of this specialised sector of nursing. Rehabilitation and patient education are to name but a few of the areas where exciting new challenges and opportunities for cardiothoracic nurses have opened up.

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  • Rubber is indigenous to South America. Many attempts to start a viable rubber industry in that region have met with failure because of the presence of SALB and the lack of a cost-effective management tools in that region. SALB spreads rapidly causing severe leaf fall and twig dieback. Chemical control that involves repeated fungicide applications to trees of great height has been found to be expensive and impractical.

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  • This chapter addresses the physiological and emotional components of health and well- being. It aims to help people become more aware of their internalized frameworks and how they can be utilized so as to attain and enjoy a healthy outlook on life. In turn this can influence health-related behaviour and reduce consequently the likelihood of experiencing illnesses induced by aspects of modern living.

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  • The "Sanjiao" is a large Fu organ containing all the internal organs, and also used to locate the body parts. The physiological functions of Sanjiao control the activities of the Qi of the human body. Triple Energizer is a collective name of the upper, middle and lower Jiao (energizer) :the upper Jiao is that the portion of the body cavity above the diaphragm which houses the heart and the lung. The middle Jiao is the portion between the diaphragm and umbilicus which houses the spleen and the stomach.

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  • We, the editors of this book, both have a long association with Dorothea Orem—Susan Taylor since 1976 and Kathie Renpenning since 1983. Collaboration between the two of us began in 1983 at the instigation of Orem and continues to this day through theory development activities, writing and publishing, and giving presentations in North America, South America, Asia, and Europe. As we have worked with Orem and learned of her theoretical and conceptual work, we also got to know her personally and were privileged to have access to her working papers and presentations.

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  • Anesthesia management is markedly influenced by pregnancy. Pregnancy-induced physiologic alterations may be compounded by labor, pregnancy-associated conditions (e.g., pregnancy-induced hypertension), or intercurrent disease states of the mother or fetus (e.g., heart disease, pulmonary hypertension, diabetes, or isoimmunization). The pregnancy alterations most influencing anesthesia are those of the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal systems. At term, cardiac output is increased by 30%–40% above nonpregnant levels in the absence of aortocaval compression.

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  • Effective new treatments of heart disease are based on a refined understanding of cellular function and the heart's response to environmental stresses. Not surprisingly therefore, the field of experimental cardiology has experienced a phase of rapid exponential growth during the last decade. The acquisition of new knowledge has been so fast that textbooks of cardiology or textbooks of cardiovascular physiology are often hard-pressed to keep up with the most important conceptual advances.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Part 1. Introduction to Clinical Medicine Chapter 7. Medical Disorders during Pregnancy Medical Disorders during Pregnancy: Introduction Approximately 4 million births occur in the United States each year. A significant proportion of these are complicated by one or more medical disorders. Three decades ago, many medical disorders were contraindications to pregnancy.

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  • Physiology of Circadian Rhythmicity The sleep-wake cycle is the most evident of the many 24-h rhythms in humans. Prominent daily variations also occur in endocrine, thermoregulatory, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, and neurobehavioral functions. At the molecular level, endogenous circadian rhythmicity is driven by self-sustaining transcriptional/translational feedback loops (Fig. 28-2). In evaluating a daily variation in humans, it is important to distinguish between those rhythmic components passively evoked by periodic environmental or behavioral changes (e.g.

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  • As one ascends rapidly to 3000 m (~10,000 ft), the reduction of the O 2 content of inspired air (FIO2) leads to a decrease in alveolar PO2 to about 60 mmHg, and a condition termed high-altitude illness develops (see above). At higher altitudes, arterial saturation declines rapidly and symptoms become more serious; and at 5000 m, unacclimatized individuals usually cease to be able to function normally.

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  • Harrison's Hypocalcemia Internal Medicine Chapter 47. Hypercalcemia and HYPERCALCEMIA AND HYPOCALCEMIA: INTRODUCTION The calcium ion plays a critical role in normal cellular function and signaling, regulating diverse physiologic processes such as neuromuscular signaling, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Thus, extracellular calcium concentrations are maintained within an exquisitely narrow range through a series of feedback mechanisms that involve parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D].

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  • Advances in obstetrics, neonatology, obstetric anesthesiology, and medicine have increased the expectation that pregnancy will result in an excellent outcome for both mother and fetus despite most of these conditions. Successful pregnancy requires important physiologic adaptations, such as a marked increase in cardiac output. Medical problems that interfere with the physiologic adaptations of pregnancy increase the risk for poor pregnancy outcome; conversely, in some instances pregnancy may adversely impact an underlying medical disorder. ...

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  • Previous chapters emphasized physiologic concepts concerning cardiac and vascular function at the cellular and organ level. In addition, they examined mechanisms, such as baroreceptors and circulating hormones, that regulate overall cardiovascular function. This chapter integrates all the components of the cardiovascular system and shows how they work together to maintain normal perfusion of organs under conditions of increased organ demand for blood flow (e.g., during exercise and pregnancy) or during abnormal stressful conditions such as hemorrhage....

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  • Congenital heart disease in newborns is associated with global impairment in development. We characterized brain metabolism and microstructure, as measures of brain maturation, in newborns with congenital heart disease before they underwent heart surgery. Methods We studied 41 term newborns with congenital heart disease — 29 who had transposition of the great arteries and 12 who had single-ventricle physiology — with the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) before cardiac surgery....

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  • Reduction of Effective Arterial Volume In many forms of edema, the effective arterial blood volume, a parameter that represents the filling of the arterial tree, is reduced. Underfilling of the arterial tree may be caused by a reduction of cardiac output and/or systemic vascular resistance. As a consequence of underfilling, a series of physiologic responses designed to restore the effective arterial volume to normal are set into motion. A key element of these responses is the retention of salt and, therefore, of water, ultimately leading to edema.

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  • The calcium ion plays a critical role in normal cellular function and signaling, regulating diverse physiologic processes such as neuromuscular signaling, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Thus, extracellular calcium concentrations are maintained within an exquisitely narrow range through a series of feedback mechanisms that involve parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D]. These feedback mechanisms are orchestrated by integrating signals between the parathyroid glands, kidney, intestine, and bone (Fig.

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