Monte-Carlo modeling allows calculating the detector efficiency in gamma spectrometry of environmental samples with taking into consideration both the photon selfabsorption in sample itself and absorption in all other materials between the sample and the detector’s active part. In this paper, the peak efficiencies of the Hp Ge detector (GMX) for gammas at various energies (emitted isotropically from the standard disk source and volumetric source - environmental sample, in which the different radionuclides are present) ...
The Texas Instrument TMS320VC5510 DSK’s calculation abilitiy with different program languages is investigated for minimum the DSP’s measurement time. The steps of Monte Carlo simulations embedded into the DSK’s flash through the DSK’s JTAG interface for optical parameters measurement including absorption coefficient µ a , scattering coefficient µ s and anisotropy g are presented. The obtained results for diluted milk standard samples are also reported.
This Report addresses in considerable detail the consequences of
hot particles on and near the skin, in the eye, ear, respiratory system,
and gastrointestinal tract. Limits for exposures from hot particles are
recommended. If exposures are maintained below the recommended
limits, few, if any, deterministic biological effects are expected to be
observed, and those effects would be transient in nature. If effects
from a hot-particle exposure are observed, the result is an easily
treated medical condition involving an extraordinarily small stochastic
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This book explains the ﬁnancial appraisal of capital budgeting projects. The coverage extends from the development of basic concepts, principles and techniques to the application of them in increasingly complex and real-world situations. Identiﬁcation and estimation (including forecasting) of cash ﬂows, project appraisal formulae and the application of net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and other project evaluation criteria are illustrated with a variety of calculation examples.
In this chapter, the analytical embedded atom method and calculating Gibbs free energy
method are introduced briefly. Combining these methods with molecular dynamic and
Monte Carlo techniques, thermodynamics of nano-silver and alloy particles have been
Bremsstrahlung energy spectrum from thin W target produced by 15 MeV incident electrons was determined by a combination of measurements and theoretical calculation. The shape of spectrum was calculated by Monte-Carlo method using the code EGS4. The photon flux measurements were performed based on the activation technique using the high pure metallic foils. The radioactivities of the irradiated foils were measured by using a gamma spectrometer with a high energy resolution HPGe detector.