Chapter 6 - The second law of thermodynamics. In this chapter, the thermal energy reservoirs, reversible and irreversible processes, heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are introduced first. Various statements of the second law are followed by a discussion of perpetualmotion machines and the thermodynamic temperature scale. The Carnot cycle is introduced next, and the Carnot principles are discussed. Finally, the idealized Carnot heat engines, refrigerators, and heat pumps are examined.
This is the third edition of a physical chemistry textbook designed for a two-semester
undergraduate physical chemistry course. The physical chemistry course is often the
ﬁrst opportunity that a student has to synthesize descriptive, theoretical, and mathe-
matical knowledge about chemistry into a coherent whole. To facilitate this synthe-
sis, the book is constructed about the idea of deﬁning a system, studying the states
in which it might be found, and analyzing the processes by which it can change
Chapter 11 - Refrigeration cycles. The objectives of Chapter 11 are to: Introduce the concepts of refrigerators and heat pumps and the measure of their performance, analyze the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, analyze the actual vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, review the factors involved in selecting the right refrigerant for an application,...
Chapter 11 - Refrigeration cycles. This chapter introduce the concepts of refrigerators and heat pumps and the measure of their performance, evaluate the maximum possible coefficient of performance for refrigerators and heat pumps based on the reversed Carnot cycle, analyze the ideal vapor-compression refrigeration cycle,...
Fuel cells (FCs) are electrochemical systems that continuously produce electric energy and heat, where the reactants (fuel and oxidant) are fed to the electrodes and the reaction products are removed from the cell. The chemical energy of the reactants is directly converted into electricity, reaction products, and heat without involving combustion processes. The efﬁciencies of the FCs are about twice those of the heat engines because the latter are affected by the limitations imposed by Carnot’s theorem.
Thermodynamics has historically grown out of man's determination—as Sadi Carnot put it—to capture "the motive power offire."Relative to mechanical engineering, thermodynamics describes the relationship between mechanical work and other forms of energy. There are two facets of contemporary thermodynamics that must be stressed in a review such as this. The first is the equivalence of work and heat as two