Xem 1-20 trên 1076 kết quả Categories
  • Working with Categories and Email Outlook supports categories on all items and, although no one thinks twice about using them on calendars, tasks, and contacts, categories aren't as widely used on messages as they should be

    pdf3p chutieuchuathieulam 23-07-2010 54 5   Download

  • The purpose of this paper is to prove that the stable homotopy category of algebraic topology is ‘rigid’ in the sense that it admits essentially only one model: Rigidity Theorem. Let C be a stable model category. If the homotopy category of C and the homotopy category of spectra are equivalent as triangulated categories, then there exists a Quillen equivalence between C and the model category of spectra. Our reference model is the category of spectra in the sense of Bousfield and Friedlander [BF, §2] with the stable model structure. The point of the rigidity theorem is that its...

    pdf28p noel_noel 17-01-2013 20 5   Download

  • We make up mental categories continuously, every time we think, be ... combination in order to make up a mental category, are a form of memory. ...

    pdf14p tuanhung 12-06-2009 87 4   Download

  • Using a variety of methods developed in the literature (in particular, the theory of weak Hopf algebras), we prove a number of general results about fusion categories in characteristic zero. We show that the global dimension of a fusion category is always positive, and that the S-matrix of any (not necessarily hermitian) modular category is unitary. We also show that the category of module functors between two module categories over a fusion category is semisimple, and that fusion categories and tensor functors between them are undeformable (generalized Ocneanu rigidity).

    pdf63p noel_noel 17-01-2013 25 4   Download

  • .least in one of the possible directions, namely the mathematical semantics of data types and programs as objects and morphisms of categories. We were urged to write the general introduction contained in part I, since most available books in category theory are written for the “working mathematician” and, as the subject is greatly indebted to algebraic geometry and related disciplines, the examples and motivations can be understood only by readers with some a

    pdf300p anhnangmuahe2013 04-03-2013 25 4   Download

  • The multiplicative fragment of linear logic has found a number of applications in computational linguistics: in the "glue language" approach to LFG semantics, and in the formulation and parsing of various categorial grammars. These applications call for efficient deduction methods. Although a number of deduction methods for multiplicative linear logic are known, none of them are tabular methods, which bring a substantial efficiency gain by avoiding redundant computation (c.f.

    pdf7p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 19 3   Download

  • Combinatory Categorial Grammars, CCGs, (Steedman 1985) have been shown by Weir and loshi (1988) to generate the same class of languages as Tree-Adjoining Grammars (TAG), Head Grammars (HG), and Linear Indexed Grammars (LIG). In this paper, I will discuss the effect of using variables in lexical category assignments in CCGs. It will be shown that using variables in lexical categories can increase the weak generative capacity of CCGs beyond the class of grammars listed above.

    pdf3p bunmoc_1 20-04-2013 17 3   Download

  • CONCLUSIONS None of the additional characteristics for CatListGram affects the weak capacity of a categorial grammar; i.e.: • exclusive cancellation of primitives does not affect recognition capacity maintaining more than one argument stack does not affect recognition capacity merging argument stacks of primary and secondary category does not affect recognition capacity and it takes more than disharmony to induce permutation closure.

    pdf2p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 16 3   Download

  • Google vừa thêm vào dịch vụ Gmail nền web tính năng "Category Tabs" giúp tự động sắp xếp email thành nhóm, cho phép người dùng truy cập ngay đến email mà mình cần nhanh chóng hơn. Mặc định tính năng này sẽ được ẩn, bạn có thể kích hoạt bằng cách truy cập vào biểu tượng Settings và chọn "Configure inbox".

    pdf3p caphe_123 19-07-2013 13 3   Download

  • This paper is concerned with learning categorial grammars in Gold’s model. In contrast to k-valued classical categorial grammars, k-valued Lambek grammars are not learnable from strings. This result was shown for several variants but the question was left open for the weakest one, the non-associative variant NL. We show that the class of rigid and kvalued NL grammars is unlearnable from strings, for each k; this result is obtained by a specific construction of a limit point in the considered class, that does not use product operator. ...

    pdf8p bunbo_1 17-04-2013 14 2   Download

  • Recent work has seen the emergence of a common framework for parsing categorial grammar (CG) formalisms that fall within the 'type-logical' tradition (such as the Lambek calculus and related systems), whereby some method of linear logic theorem proving is used in combination with a system of labelling that ensures only deductions appropriate to the relevant grammatical logic are allowed. The approaches realising this framework, however, have not so far addressed the task of incremental parsing - - a key issue in earlier work with 'flexible' categorial grammars.

    pdf8p bunthai_1 06-05-2013 23 2   Download

  • Use of Lambek's (1958) categorial grammar for linguistic work has generally been rather limited. There appear to be two main reasons for this: the notations most commonly used can sometimes obscure the structure of proofs and fail to clearly convey linguistic structure, and the cMculus as it stands is apparently not powerful enough to describe many phenomena encountered in natural language. In this paper we suggest ways of dealing with both these deficiencies.

    pdf6p buncha_1 08-05-2013 17 2   Download

  • Hiểu kỹ về sự giống và khác nhau giữa hai cách tổ chức và đánh dấu bài viết Tags và Category sẽ giúp bạn không những sắp xếp khoa học, rõ ràng mà con có thể thực hiện SEO WordPress bằng Tags và Category cho các máy tìm kiếm hay mạng xã hội....

    pdf4p lichsu_5 13-05-2013 17 2   Download

  • The definition of combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) in the literature varies quite a bit from author to author. However, the differences between the definitions are important in terms of the language classes of each CCG. We prove that a wide range of CCGs are strongly context-free, including the CCG of CCGbank and of the parser of Clark and Curran (2007). In light of these new results, we train the PCFG parser of Petrov and Klein (2007) on CCGbank and achieve state of the art results in supertagging accuracy, PARSEVAL measures and dependency accuracy. ...

    pdf10p hongdo_1 12-04-2013 8 1   Download

  • As the web grows larger, knowledge acquisition from the web has gained increasing attention. In this paper, we propose using web search clickthrough logs to learn semantic categories. Experimental results show that the proposed method greatly outperforms previous work using only web search query logs. sition in both precision and recall. We cast semantic category acquisition from search logs as the task of learning labeled instances from few labeled seeds. To our knowledge this is the first study that exploits search clickthrough logs for semantic category learning....

    pdf4p hongphan_1 15-04-2013 20 1   Download

  • We present a novel approach for discovering word categories, sets of words sharing a significant aspect of their meaning. We utilize meta-patterns of highfrequency words and content words in order to discover pattern candidates. Symmetric patterns are then identified using graph-based measures, and word categories are created based on graph clique sets. Our method is the first pattern-based method that requires no corpus annotation or manually provided seed patterns or words.

    pdf8p hongvang_1 16-04-2013 12 1   Download

  • This paper proposes a novel approach to the induction of Combinatory Categorial Grammars (CCGs) by their potential affinity with the Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Specifically, CCGs utilize a rich yet compact notation for lexical categories, which combine with relatively few grammatical rules, presumed universal. Thus, the search for a CCG consists in large part in a search for the appropriate categories for the data-set’s lexical items. We present and evaluates a system utilizing a simple GA to successively search and improve on such assignments. ...

    pdf6p hongvang_1 16-04-2013 10 1   Download

  • This paper describes an algorithm for detecting empty nodes in the Penn Treebank (Marcus et al., 1993), finding their antecedents, and assigning them function tags, without access to lexical information such as valency. Unlike previous approaches to this task, the current method is not corpus-based, but rather makes use of the principles of early Government-Binding theory (Chomsky, 1981), the syntactic theory that underlies the annotation.

    pdf8p bunbo_1 17-04-2013 13 1   Download

  • We introduce a new categorial formalism based on intuitionistic linear logic. This formalism, which derives from current type-logical grammars, is abstract in the sense that both syntax and semantics are handled by the same set of primitives. As a consequence, the formalism is reversible and provides different computational paradigms that may be freely composed together. : On the other hand, the semantic contents obeys the following scheme: : This asymmetry may be broken by: 1.

    pdf8p bunrieu_1 18-04-2013 19 1   Download

  • This paper compares a number of generative probability models for a widecoverage Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) parser. These models are trained and tested on a corpus obtained by translating the Penn Treebank trees into CCG normal-form derivations. According to an evaluation of unlabeled word-word dependencies, our best model achieves a performance of 89.9%, comparable to the figures given by Collins (1999) for a linguistically less expressive grammar. In contrast to Gildea (2001), we find a significant improvement from modeling wordword dependencies. ...

    pdf8p bunmoc_1 20-04-2013 13 1   Download

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