Categories

Working with Categories and Email Outlook supports categories on all items and, although no one thinks twice about using them on calendars, tasks, and contacts, categories aren't as widely used on messages as they should be
3p chutieuchuathieulam 23072010 54 5 Download

The purpose of this paper is to prove that the stable homotopy category of algebraic topology is ‘rigid’ in the sense that it admits essentially only one model: Rigidity Theorem. Let C be a stable model category. If the homotopy category of C and the homotopy category of spectra are equivalent as triangulated categories, then there exists a Quillen equivalence between C and the model category of spectra. Our reference model is the category of spectra in the sense of Bousﬁeld and Friedlander [BF, §2] with the stable model structure. The point of the rigidity theorem is that its...
28p noel_noel 17012013 20 5 Download

We make up mental categories continuously, every time we think, be ... combination in order to make up a mental category, are a form of memory. ...
14p tuanhung 12062009 87 4 Download

Using a variety of methods developed in the literature (in particular, the theory of weak Hopf algebras), we prove a number of general results about fusion categories in characteristic zero. We show that the global dimension of a fusion category is always positive, and that the Smatrix of any (not necessarily hermitian) modular category is unitary. We also show that the category of module functors between two module categories over a fusion category is semisimple, and that fusion categories and tensor functors between them are undeformable (generalized Ocneanu rigidity).
63p noel_noel 17012013 25 4 Download

.least in one of the possible directions, namely the mathematical semantics of data types and programs as objects and morphisms of categories. We were urged to write the general introduction contained in part I, since most available books in category theory are written for the “working mathematician” and, as the subject is greatly indebted to algebraic geometry and related disciplines, the examples and motivations can be understood only by readers with some a
300p anhnangmuahe2013 04032013 25 4 Download

The multiplicative fragment of linear logic has found a number of applications in computational linguistics: in the "glue language" approach to LFG semantics, and in the formulation and parsing of various categorial grammars. These applications call for efficient deduction methods. Although a number of deduction methods for multiplicative linear logic are known, none of them are tabular methods, which bring a substantial efficiency gain by avoiding redundant computation (c.f.
7p bunrieu_1 18042013 19 3 Download

Combinatory Categorial Grammars, CCGs, (Steedman 1985) have been shown by Weir and loshi (1988) to generate the same class of languages as TreeAdjoining Grammars (TAG), Head Grammars (HG), and Linear Indexed Grammars (LIG). In this paper, I will discuss the effect of using variables in lexical category assignments in CCGs. It will be shown that using variables in lexical categories can increase the weak generative capacity of CCGs beyond the class of grammars listed above.
3p bunmoc_1 20042013 17 3 Download

CONCLUSIONS None of the additional characteristics for CatListGram affects the weak capacity of a categorial grammar; i.e.: • exclusive cancellation of primitives does not affect recognition capacity maintaining more than one argument stack does not affect recognition capacity merging argument stacks of primary and secondary category does not affect recognition capacity and it takes more than disharmony to induce permutation closure.
2p bunthai_1 06052013 16 3 Download

Google vừa thêm vào dịch vụ Gmail nền web tính năng "Category Tabs" giúp tự động sắp xếp email thành nhóm, cho phép người dùng truy cập ngay đến email mà mình cần nhanh chóng hơn. Mặc định tính năng này sẽ được ẩn, bạn có thể kích hoạt bằng cách truy cập vào biểu tượng Settings và chọn "Configure inbox".
3p caphe_123 19072013 13 3 Download

This paper is concerned with learning categorial grammars in Gold’s model. In contrast to kvalued classical categorial grammars, kvalued Lambek grammars are not learnable from strings. This result was shown for several variants but the question was left open for the weakest one, the nonassociative variant NL. We show that the class of rigid and kvalued NL grammars is unlearnable from strings, for each k; this result is obtained by a speciﬁc construction of a limit point in the considered class, that does not use product operator. ...
8p bunbo_1 17042013 14 2 Download

Recent work has seen the emergence of a common framework for parsing categorial grammar (CG) formalisms that fall within the 'typelogical' tradition (such as the Lambek calculus and related systems), whereby some method of linear logic theorem proving is used in combination with a system of labelling that ensures only deductions appropriate to the relevant grammatical logic are allowed. The approaches realising this framework, however, have not so far addressed the task of incremental parsing   a key issue in earlier work with 'flexible' categorial grammars.
8p bunthai_1 06052013 23 2 Download

Use of Lambek's (1958) categorial grammar for linguistic work has generally been rather limited. There appear to be two main reasons for this: the notations most commonly used can sometimes obscure the structure of proofs and fail to clearly convey linguistic structure, and the cMculus as it stands is apparently not powerful enough to describe many phenomena encountered in natural language. In this paper we suggest ways of dealing with both these deficiencies.
6p buncha_1 08052013 17 2 Download

Hiểu kỹ về sự giống và khác nhau giữa hai cách tổ chức và đánh dấu bài viết Tags và Category sẽ giúp bạn không những sắp xếp khoa học, rõ ràng mà con có thể thực hiện SEO WordPress bằng Tags và Category cho các máy tìm kiếm hay mạng xã hội....
4p lichsu_5 13052013 17 2 Download

The deﬁnition of combinatory categorial grammar (CCG) in the literature varies quite a bit from author to author. However, the differences between the deﬁnitions are important in terms of the language classes of each CCG. We prove that a wide range of CCGs are strongly contextfree, including the CCG of CCGbank and of the parser of Clark and Curran (2007). In light of these new results, we train the PCFG parser of Petrov and Klein (2007) on CCGbank and achieve state of the art results in supertagging accuracy, PARSEVAL measures and dependency accuracy. ...
10p hongdo_1 12042013 8 1 Download

As the web grows larger, knowledge acquisition from the web has gained increasing attention. In this paper, we propose using web search clickthrough logs to learn semantic categories. Experimental results show that the proposed method greatly outperforms previous work using only web search query logs. sition in both precision and recall. We cast semantic category acquisition from search logs as the task of learning labeled instances from few labeled seeds. To our knowledge this is the ﬁrst study that exploits search clickthrough logs for semantic category learning....
4p hongphan_1 15042013 20 1 Download

We present a novel approach for discovering word categories, sets of words sharing a signiﬁcant aspect of their meaning. We utilize metapatterns of highfrequency words and content words in order to discover pattern candidates. Symmetric patterns are then identiﬁed using graphbased measures, and word categories are created based on graph clique sets. Our method is the ﬁrst patternbased method that requires no corpus annotation or manually provided seed patterns or words.
8p hongvang_1 16042013 12 1 Download

This paper proposes a novel approach to the induction of Combinatory Categorial Grammars (CCGs) by their potential afﬁnity with the Genetic Algorithms (GAs). Speciﬁcally, CCGs utilize a rich yet compact notation for lexical categories, which combine with relatively few grammatical rules, presumed universal. Thus, the search for a CCG consists in large part in a search for the appropriate categories for the dataset’s lexical items. We present and evaluates a system utilizing a simple GA to successively search and improve on such assignments. ...
6p hongvang_1 16042013 10 1 Download

This paper describes an algorithm for detecting empty nodes in the Penn Treebank (Marcus et al., 1993), finding their antecedents, and assigning them function tags, without access to lexical information such as valency. Unlike previous approaches to this task, the current method is not corpusbased, but rather makes use of the principles of early GovernmentBinding theory (Chomsky, 1981), the syntactic theory that underlies the annotation.
8p bunbo_1 17042013 13 1 Download

We introduce a new categorial formalism based on intuitionistic linear logic. This formalism, which derives from current typelogical grammars, is abstract in the sense that both syntax and semantics are handled by the same set of primitives. As a consequence, the formalism is reversible and provides different computational paradigms that may be freely composed together. : On the other hand, the semantic contents obeys the following scheme: : This asymmetry may be broken by: 1.
8p bunrieu_1 18042013 19 1 Download

This paper compares a number of generative probability models for a widecoverage Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) parser. These models are trained and tested on a corpus obtained by translating the Penn Treebank trees into CCG normalform derivations. According to an evaluation of unlabeled wordword dependencies, our best model achieves a performance of 89.9%, comparable to the ﬁgures given by Collins (1999) for a linguistically less expressive grammar. In contrast to Gildea (2001), we ﬁnd a significant improvement from modeling wordword dependencies. ...
8p bunmoc_1 20042013 13 1 Download