Causal interpretation

Xem 1-9 trên 9 kết quả Causal interpretation
  • xi Preface This book roughly follows the process of care, illustrating the techniques involved in medical imaging informatics. Our intention in this text is to provide a roadmap for the different topics that are involved in this field: in many cases, the topics covered in the ensuing chapters are themselves worthy of lengthy descriptions, if not an entire book. As a result, when possible the authors have attempted to provide both seminal and current references for the reader to pursue additional details....

    pdf562p hyperion75 22-01-2013 18 4   Download

  • Islam and Watanapalachaikul (2003) showed a strong, significant long-run relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic factors (interest rate, bonds price, foreign exchange rate, price-earning ratio, market capitalization, and consumer price index) during 1992-2001 in Thailand. Hassan (2003) employed Johansen’s (1988, 1991, 1992b) and Johansen and Juselius’ (1990) multivariate cointegration techniques to test for the existence of long-term relationships between share prices in the Persian Gulf region.

    pdf65p bocapchetnguoi 05-12-2012 25 2   Download

  • Brightly colored condoms, arranged in the shape of bicycles, eyeglasses, or flowers: part of an extensive campaign against the AIDS risk, these have been a common sight on billboards in Germany for several years now. An advertising spot presented on the Arte television channel (which defines itself as the cultural television channel of Europe) calls on viewers to “fight together.” The spots on German television (distributed by both private and public channels) are about “not giving AIDS a chance.

    pdf290p hyperion75 22-01-2013 11 1   Download

  • PDi and LDi are aimed at testing the incidence of adverse selection: whether firms in poor financial health and/or facing liquidity constraints are more likely to seek and get access to bank credit. In the case of the liquidity dummy there is no ambiguity about the causality and the interpretation of the results in terms of adverse selection. However, in the case of the profitability dummy, again we cannot fully eliminate the endogeneity problem because – as mentioned before – firm’s profit/loss position may affect also bank’s decision to extend the loan.

    pdf49p enterroi 01-02-2013 30 8   Download

  • A. It is the developed countries that, for whatever reason, take more taxes per dollar of income from their citizens. Now, I would not interpret that evidence to necessarily mean that high taxes (and high government spending) cause prosperity, but it is a troubling fact that the people who say low taxes are the key to prosperity must confront. In fact, the positive correlation is prob- ably largely due to factors, such as education level, that vary across countries and are connected with prosperity as well as facilitate the collection of taxes.

    pdf0p trinhcaidat 19-04-2013 23 4   Download

  • However, their empirical observations can also be interpreted at hinting at a much more fundamental problem with the causality between savings and investment proclaimed by textbook theory. This thought is not new. The causation between saving and investment has long been disputed and not yet been solved. 4 Based on the works of Keynes and Schumpeter, some economists argue that the causation does not run from saving to investment, but rather from investment to saving.

    pdf43p enterroi 01-02-2013 18 3   Download

  • This article introduces quasi-Darwinian selection as a new explanatory paradigm for marketing relationships. In this paradigm, established relationships are viewed as survivors of a selection process whose parameters are the conduct of the partners, dependencies between the partners, and external adversities in the markets. Selection has the effect of culling certain combinations of these parameters, such as attempts at unilateral control when the partner is not dependent.

    pdf15p doiroimavanchuadc 06-02-2013 28 3   Download

  • Relatedly, controlling for the forecast error of the change in fiscal policy does not, in our application, provide a way of estimating the causal effect of fiscal policy on growth. Over the two-year intervals that we consider, changes in fiscal policy are unlikely to be orthogonal to economic developments. Thus, the forecast error of fiscal consolidation over our two-year intervals cannot be interpreted as an identified fiscal shock and cannot yield estimates of actual fiscal multipliers. A large literature seeks to identify such exogenous shifts in government spending and revenues.

    pdf48p trinhcaidat 19-04-2013 18 3   Download

  • This paper presents a formal account of the temporal interpretation of text. The distinct natural interpretations of texts with similar syntax are explained in terms of defeasible rules characterising causal laws and Gricean-style pragmatic maxims. Intuitively compelling patterns of defea,sible entailment that are supported by the logic in which the theory is expressed are shown to underly temporal interpretation.

    pdf8p bunmoc_1 20-04-2013 16 1   Download

CHỦ ĐỀ BẠN MUỐN TÌM

Đồng bộ tài khoản