This book roughly follows the process of care, illustrating the techniques involved in
medical imaging informatics. Our intention in this text is to provide a roadmap for the
different topics that are involved in this field: in many cases, the topics covered in the
ensuing chapters are themselves worthy of lengthy descriptions, if not an entire book.
As a result, when possible the authors have attempted to provide both seminal and
current references for the reader to pursue additional details....
Islam and Watanapalachaikul (2003) showed a strong, signiﬁcant long-run
relationship between stock prices and macroeconomic factors (interest rate,
bonds price, foreign exchange rate, price-earning ratio, market capitalization,
and consumer price index) during 1992-2001 in Thailand.
Hassan (2003) employed Johansen’s (1988, 1991, 1992b) and Johansen
and Juselius’ (1990) multivariate cointegration techniques to test for the
existence of long-term relationships between share prices in the Persian
Brightly colored condoms, arranged in the shape of bicycles, eyeglasses,
or flowers: part of an extensive campaign against the AIDS risk, these
have been a common sight on billboards in Germany for several years
now. An advertising spot presented on the Arte television channel
(which defines itself as the cultural television channel of Europe) calls
on viewers to “fight together.” The spots on German television (distributed
by both private and public channels) are about “not giving
AIDS a chance.
PDi and LDi are aimed at testing the incidence of adverse selection: whether firms in
poor financial health and/or facing liquidity constraints are more likely to seek and get access
to bank credit. In the case of the liquidity dummy there is no ambiguity about the causality
and the interpretation of the results in terms of adverse selection. However, in the case of the
profitability dummy, again we cannot fully eliminate the endogeneity problem because – as
mentioned before – firm’s profit/loss position may affect also bank’s decision to extend the
A. It is the developed countries that, for whatever reason, take
more taxes per dollar of income from their citizens. Now, I would
not interpret that evidence to necessarily mean that high taxes
(and high government spending) cause prosperity, but it is a
troubling fact that the people who say low taxes are the key to
prosperity must confront. In fact, the positive correlation is prob-
ably largely due to factors, such as education level, that vary
across countries and are connected with prosperity as well as
facilitate the collection of taxes.
However, their empirical observations can also be interpreted at hinting at a much more
fundamental problem with the causality between savings and investment proclaimed by
textbook theory. This thought is not new. The causation between saving and investment has
long been disputed and not yet been solved.
Based on the works of Keynes and Schumpeter,
some economists argue that the causation does not run from saving to investment, but rather
from investment to saving.
This article introduces quasi-Darwinian selection as a new explanatory paradigm for marketing relationships. In this
paradigm, established relationships are viewed as survivors of a selection process whose parameters are the
conduct of the partners, dependencies between the partners, and external adversities in the markets. Selection has
the effect of culling certain combinations of these parameters, such as attempts at unilateral control when the
partner is not dependent.
Relatedly, controlling for the forecast error of the change in fiscal policy does not, in our
application, provide a way of estimating the causal effect of fiscal policy on growth. Over the
two-year intervals that we consider, changes in fiscal policy are unlikely to be orthogonal to
economic developments. Thus, the forecast error of fiscal consolidation over our two-year
intervals cannot be interpreted as an identified fiscal shock and cannot yield estimates of
actual fiscal multipliers. A large literature seeks to identify such exogenous shifts in
government spending and revenues.
This paper presents a formal account of the temporal interpretation of text. The distinct natural interpretations of texts with similar syntax are explained in terms of defeasible rules characterising causal laws and Gricean-style pragmatic maxims. Intuitively compelling patterns of defea,sible entailment that are supported by the logic in which the theory is expressed are shown to underly temporal interpretation.