Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: A causal relationship between right paraduodenal hernia and superior mesenteric artery syndrome: a case report...
ESSAYS ON THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FOREIGN DIRECT IN VESTMENT, INTERNATIONAL TRADE, AND EXCHANGE RATE VOLATILITY My analysis of parental choices focuses on the possibility that parents may choose
schools partly on the basis of the peer group offered. Although existing research does not
conclusively establish the causal contribution of peer group characteristics to student
outcomes (see, e.g., Coleman et al.
An important part of text understanding arises from
understanding the semantics of events described in
the narrative, such as identifying the events that are
mentioned and how they are related semantically.
For instance, when given a sentence “The police
arrested him because he killed someone.”, humans
understand that there are two events, triggered by
the words “arrested” and “killed”, and that there is
a causality relationship between these two events.
To what extent is poor mental health and low educational at-
tainment/ drop-out linked? Clearly the association can operate in
both directions. From a policy perspective, one would like to know
the causal inﬂuence of poor mental health on these outcomes. This
is notoriously diﬃcult to establish and most research addresses the
association rather than the causal impact.
This article introduces quasi-Darwinian selection as a new explanatory paradigm for marketing relationships. In this
paradigm, established relationships are viewed as survivors of a selection process whose parameters are the
conduct of the partners, dependencies between the partners, and external adversities in the markets. Selection has
the effect of culling certain combinations of these parameters, such as attempts at unilateral control when the
partner is not dependent.
The shaky methodological foundations of the understanding of the relationship between new
media and contentious politics are a problem for policymakers and activists as well as social
scientists. Acting effectively in the world requires getting the causal relationships right. Re-
search design matters. Many claims currently made about the effects of new media are blind
to hidden variables, confuse output with impact, or assume causal relationships that may be
spurious. The first step must therefore be to get the research design right.
Using the panel-data approach of Kónya (2006), which is based on SUR systems and Wald
tests with country-specific bootstrap critical values, and two different (weekly and monthly)
datasets covering respectively the periods from 7 June 2005 to 21October 2008, and from
January 1996 to December 2007, we show strong statistical evidence that the causal
relationship is consistently bi-directional for Saudi Arabia. In the other GCC countries, stock
market price changes do not Granger cause oil price changes, whereas oil price shocks
Granger cause stock price changes.
The Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous
System Disorders planned and held a public workshop June 16, 2009,
that brought together experts from industry, academia, government, and
advocacy groups to discuss issues directly related to a recent Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) policy that all clinical protocols for products
developed in the Division of Psychiatry Products (of the FDA) include a
prospective assessment for suicidality.
Indeed, as emphasizes by Shiller and Perron (1985) it is not the frequency
(number of observations) rather the span (number of years) of the data that is more important
to test for random walk hypothesis of economic variables or causal relationships. Secondly,
our monthly database which covers twelve years of data only includes four GCC countries out
of six and doesn’t permit to draw any conclusion about Qatar and United Arab Emirates
which are absent from the database.
Quality of health care has received recent attention as a determinant of child health. Barber and Gertler
(2001) conclude that in Indonesia children who live in communities with high quality care are healthier
compared with children who live in areas with poor quality. Peabody et al (1998) showed that Jamaican
women with access to high quality prenatal care have higher birth weights than women with access to
poor quality care. It is clear, however, that to establish causal relationships between access and/or
quality care and child health is extremely difficult.
Some proposed calorielowering strategies include eating
foods that are low in calories for a given measure of food
(e.g., many kinds of vegetables and fruits and some soups).
However, when making changes to improve nutrient intake,
one needs to make substitutions to avoid excessive calorie
intake. The healthiest way to reduce calorie intake is to
reduce one’s intake of added sugars, fats, and alcohol,
which all provide calories but few or no essential nutrients
(for more information, see chs.
Infectious diseases have been a problem for military personnel throughout history. The
consequences in previous conflicts have ranged from frequent illnesses disrupting daily activities
and readiness to widespread deaths. Preventive measures, early diagnosis, and treatment greatly
limit the exposures and acute illnesses of troops today in comparison with those in armies of the
past, but infections and consequent acute illnesses still occur. In addition, long-term adverse
health outcomes of some pathogens are increasingly recognized....
In this study, we show that the G protein-coupled receptor
agonist thrombin, the glycoprotein VI agonist convulxin,
and the cytokine receptor Mpl agonist thrombopoietin
(TPO) are able to induce activation of RAS in human
platelets. Recruitment ofGRB2 by tyrosine-phosphorylated
proteins in response to TPO and convulxin but not by
thrombin occurred with a similar time-course to RAS acti-vation, consistent with a causal relationship.
In summary, a long series of studies have investigated the relationship between
income and pollution as defined by the Environmental Kutznets Curve. Papers by Grossman
and Krueger (1991), Shafik and Bandyopadhyay (1992) and Selden and Song (1994)
presented evidence that some pollutants have historically followed an inverted U-curve with
respect to income. Although these and other empirical studies point to a correlation between
income and pollution, the causal relation is not observed for all sets of data.
Furthermore, the explanatory scope of TSC sometimes is misunder-
stood as stopping short at the boundaries of the physical body, leaving
embeddedness out of the account. However, the main unit of the analysis
of cognition arguably is the on-going interaction between the embodied
agent and the context of action. An adequate description of bodily-based
experience should begin in the agent’s relationship to the surroundings,
because experience arises from the interaction between agent and context.
In the early theoretical models, the level of stress of
caregivers was seen as a risk factor that linked elder
abuse with care of an elderly relative (36, 37).
While the popular image of abuse depicts a
dependent victim and an overstressed caregiver,
there is growing evidence that neither of these
factors properly accounts for cases of abuse.
Although researchers do not deny the component
of stress, they tend now to look at it in a wider
context in which the quality of the overall
relationship is a causal factor (30, 34, 38).
Alice then browses to several RSS-enabled sites from which she follows the same steps to
collect the news articles relevant to her research. She also ‘googles’ to discover resources that
those publication-speciﬁc sites do not offer. She browses to each promising search result and uses
Piggy Bank to tag that web page with keywords (Figure 3).
After saving and tagging several publications, RSS news articles, and web pages, Alice
browses to the local information repository called “My Piggy Bank” where her saved data resides
This study has focused on cardio-respiratory illnesses caused by the principal components of
smog, namely ozone and air-borne particulate matter.
Smog consists of a complex “soup” of
pollutants, some of which may cause human health problems directly and others which may be
precursors to causal contaminants or which are closely correlated with causal contaminants and
hence act as “markers” for human health risks. The complexities associated with the cause/effect
relationships between this soup of pollutants and human health are explored in this report.