This is the second in a series of three papers in which we initiate the study of very rough solutions to the initial value problem for the Einstein vacuum equations expressed relative to wave coordinates. By very rough we mean solutions which cannot be constructed by the classical techniques of energy estimates and Sobolev inequalities. In this paper we develop the geometric analysis of the Eikonal equation for microlocalized rough Einstein metrics. This is a crucial step in the derivation of the decay estimates needed in the ﬁrst paper. ...
This paper develops a minimally supervised
approach, based on focused distributional sim-
ilarity methods and discourse connectives,
for identifying of causality relations between
events in context. While it has been shown
that distributional similarity can help identify-
ing causality, we observe that discourse con-
nectives and the particular discourse relation
they evoke in context provide additional in-
formation towards determining causality be-
Finding temporal and causal relations is crucial to understanding the semantic structure of a text. Since existing corpora provide no parallel temporal and causal annotations, we annotated 1000 conjoined event pairs, achieving inter-annotator agreement of 81.2% on temporal relations and 77.8% on causal relations. We trained machine learning models using features derived from WordNet and the Google N-gram corpus, and they outperformed a variety of baselines, achieving an F-measure of 49.0 for temporals and 52.4 for causals. ...
Aeromonas salmonicidais a pathogenic aquatic bacterium
and the causal agent of furunculosis in salmon. In the course
of this study, it was found that when grownin vitro on
tryptic soy agar,A. salmonicidastrain 80204-1 produced a
capsular polysaccharide with the identical structure to that
of the lipopolysaccharide O-chain polysaccharide.
This is a book that you will ﬁnd difﬁcult to stop reading, and it is a book that
you will not easily forget. There are facts in this book about causal analysis,
measurement, and statistical methodology that will cause you to rethink
much of what you assumed or were told was “best practice.” It is also an
exciting book because of what it promises the social scientistda pioneering
venture into the undiscovered country of a 21st-century psychological
This book is written for all those interested in arguments and arguing—and especially
for students enrolled in courses designed to improve their critical thinking abilities. My
goal in this work is to present enough theory to explain why certain kinds of argument
are good or bad and enough illustrations and examples to show how that theory can
The book includes lively illustrations from contemporary debates and issues and
ample student exercises. Responses to some exercises are provided within the book,
while the remainder are answered in a manual available to instructors.
This study has focused on cardio-respiratory illnesses caused by the principal components of
smog, namely ozone and air-borne particulate matter.
Smog consists of a complex “soup” of
pollutants, some of which may cause human health problems directly and others which may be
precursors to causal contaminants or which are closely correlated with causal contaminants and
hence act as “markers” for human health risks. The complexities associated with the cause/effect
relationships between this soup of pollutants and human health are explored in this report.
For the B-H and A-H pairings, we nd similar patterns: The rst sub-period is dominated
by causal spillovers (from H to B, respectively from A to H), which give way to correlated
structural innovations after 2001. However, the interaction between B and H, and even
more so between A and H, is far less developed than in the A-B case.
The paper is organized as follows: Section 2 brie
y introduces the history of the Chinese
stock market and oers a literature review. Section 3 elaborates the methodology of the
SDCC model. Empirical results are reported in Section 4.
As we can see, the findings of the little available work on GCC countries are contradictory.
These findings are puzzling because the GCC countries are heavy oil exporters and have
similar economic structures. Furthermore, the GCC economies are oil dependent and are thus
sensitive to oil price changes. But previous results are based on country analysis and use time
series data from relatively short periods. Our paper differs from previous studies by applying
a recent bootstrap panel causality test to examine the relationship between oil and stock
markets in GCC countries. ...
Event-based summarization attempts to select and organize the sentences in a summary with respect to the events or the sub-events that the sentences describe. Each event has its own internal structure, and meanwhile often relates to other events semantically, temporally, spatially, causally or conditionally.