Medicine without statistics is quackery; statistics without medicine is numerology. Perhaps
this is the main reason why clinicians should care about statistics.
Statistics in medicine began in the early nineteenth century (it was called “the numerical
method” then) and its debut involved disproving the most common and widely accepted
medical treatment for millennia: bleeding. From ancient Rome until 1900, all physicians –
from Galen to Avicenna to Benjamin Rush – strongly and clearly advocated bleeding as the
treatment for most medical illnesses.
A semantics of linguistic categories like tense, aspect, and certain temporal adverbials, and a theory of their use in defining the temporal relations of events, both require a more complex structure on the domain underlying the meaning representations than is commonly assumed. The paper proposes an ontology based on such notions as causation and consequence, rather than on purely temporal primitives.
We offer a semantics and pragmatics of the pluperfect in narrative discourse. We rexamine in a formal model of implicature, how the reader's knowledge about the discourse, Gricean-maxims and causation contribute to the meaning of the pluperfect. By placing the analysis in a theory where the interactions among these knowledge resources can be precisely computed, we overcome some problems with previous Reichenbachian approaches.