Causative factors

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  • Cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease, strokes and diseases of other arteries, is a major cause of early death and disability. For many years the major markers of disease risk have been well recognised: these include high blood cholesterol levels and smoking. But it has also been recognised that these markers do not account for all cardiovascular risk. Furthermore, treatments that are highly effective in altering these markers, for instance the ‘statin’ drugs used to lower cholesterol, do not remove risk entirely: typically they reduce it by about 30% or less.

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  • Pathogenesis and Immunology Diphtheria toxin, produced by toxigenic strains of C. diphtheriae, is the primary virulence factor in clinical disease. The toxin is synthesized in precursor form; is released as a 535-amino-acid, single-chain protein; and has an LD50 of ~100 ng/kg of body weight. The toxin is produced in the pseudomembranous lesion and is taken up into the bloodstream, through which it is distributed to all organ systems.

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  • Bacterial biofilms are regarded to be the primary aetiological factor in the initiation of gingival inflammation and subsequent destruction of periodontal tissues (Offenbacher 1996) and three major specific pathogens have been repeatedly identified as etiologic agents, namely Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) and Tannerella forsythia (Tf) (Socransky et al. 1998).

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  • After completing this lesson, you should be able to do the following: Describe the factors that affect planned and unplanned downtime Describe the basic components of Oracle Data Guard Explain the differences between physical and logical standby databases Explain the benefits of creating a Data Guard environment Explain the use of Data Guard in high-availability architectures

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  • Assessment of source of air, water, and land pollution - Part II : Approaches for consideration in formulating evironmantal control strategies.The environment is a combination of natural factors and social surrounds the outside of a certain system. They affect this system and identify trends and status of its existence. Environment can be seen as a set, in which the system is considered as a subset. Environment of a system is considered to be interactive with that system

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  • For many years microbiologists believed that the tissues of healthy animals normally contained bacteria (Reith, 1926; Ingram, 1972). These ‘intrinsic’ bacteria were the cause of phenomena such as ‘bone taint’. The cause of bone taint is still questioned and will be discussed later.The prevailing view of the majority of textbooks (Banwart, 1989;Varnam and Sutherland, 1995), based in part on the work of Gill (Gill, 1979, 1980) is that the meat of a healthy animal is essentially sterile.

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  • Over 98 per cent of sprayed insecticides and 95 per cent of herbicides reach a destination other than their target species, including non-target species, air, water and soil. Pesticide drift occurs when pesticides suspended in the air as particles are carried by wind to other areas, potentially contaminating them. Pesticides are one of the causes of water pollution and some pesticides are persistent organic pollutants and contribute to soil contamination. Detection of pesticide molecules in the food items from plant and animal origin become imperative for safe consumption of food.

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  • We live in a society that bombards consumers with messages, from pop-ups on computers, to on-line chat room links, to e-newsletters and e- blasts, to advertising in traditional media, all de- signed to build a “share of mind” for a product, service or social cause. marketing is at the heart of every successful brand, business, organization, and cause. marketing is not merely communica- tions. it is the sum presentation to the customer of a value equation that results in a sale or action.

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  • In the study performed by Purushotham et al. (2011) showed that about 28% of total hardness in the study site exceeded the desirable limits at 600 mg L-1. Naturally, the water hardness is due to the presence of alkaline earths such as calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg). Excess of magnesium affects the soil quality, which results in poor crops yield. The high concentration of magnesium and calcium can cause decrease in water quality and may cause encrustation in the water supply structure.

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  • Carcinoma of the lung is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women. Prognosis correlates strongly with stage of disease at presentation and to some degree with the histological subtype of the tumor. Histological classifications of lung cancer were somewhat arbitrary and a matter of convenience. However, multiple lines of differentiation are often found within a single tumor, if it is sufficiently sampled.

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  • Allergic diseases are an adverse reaction of the immune system against otherwise innocuous substances and are characterized by their high complexity. Patients can be asymptomatic or their involvement could be as severe as asthma. The complex nature of the phenotypes involved seems to point to genetic and environmental factors implication. Familiar aggregation or genetic implication in the development of these diseases is well reported, and experts seem to agree that atopic diseases affect homozygotic twins more than dizigotic twins (Ownby, 1990, Duffy et al., 1990)....

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  • Intimate partner and sexual violence affect a large proportion of the population – with the majority of those directly experiencing such violence being women and the majority perpetrating it being men. The harm they cause can last a lifetime and span generations, with serious adverse affects on health, education and employment.

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  • Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common known preventable cause of mental impairment. Babies with FAS have distinctive changes in their facial features and they may be born small. The brain damage that occurs with FAS can result in lifelong problems with learning, memory, attention, and problem solving. These alcohol-related changes in the brain may be present even in babies whose appearance and growth are not affected.

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  • A person who had the cancer and died 10 years later of the cancer would contribute an event, a death due to the cancer, having also contributed 10 person-years of survival time. A 90 % cancer specific survival at 10 years would mean that 90 % of patients had not died from their cancer, while 10 % had died from their cancer (Kaplan, 1958). Calculation of cause-specific survival is especially important when studying diseases with a favorable prognosis, as is the case at hand, where the patients live long enough to be exposed to other causes of death....

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  • The estimated worldwide pesticides application is about 4 million tons (Elersek and Filipic, 2011) and according to Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario (ICA) Colombia produce 16.999.216 litters of herbicides, 6.392.387 litters of insecticides, and 19.690.293 kilograms of fungicides (ICA, 2010) during 2010. Approximately 1.8 billion people worldwide are engaged in agriculture and it has been estimated that up to 25 million agriculture laborers have suffered non-intentional intoxications every year (Alavanja, 2008).

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  • The burning of fossil fuels puts into the atmosphere carbon dioxide, which is causing gradual global warming. This 'greenhouse effect' may by early next century have increased average global temperatures enough to shift agricultural production areas, raise sea levels to flood coastal cities, and disrupt national economies.

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  • In a direct test of the question, “connective tissue or muscle damage?“, Petros et al 2008 performed a blinded prospective study with muscle biopsies of m.pubococcygeus taken at the same time as a midurethral sling operation for urinary stress incontinence (USI) was done, an operation which works by creating an artificial collagenous neoligament (Petros PE, Ulmsten U, Papadimitriou 1990).

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  • Contents Introduction This book The context 1 Good or bad by nature? Empathy and sympathy 2 What is my price? Integrity as supply and demand 3 Bagels at work: honesty and dishonesty 4 Egoism versus altruism: the theory of the warm glow and the helping hand 5 What you expect is what you get: the Pygmalion and Golem effects 6 Self-image and behavior: the Galatea effect 7 Self-knowledge and mirages: self-serving biases and the dodo effect 8 Apples, barrels and orchards: dispositional, situational and systemic causes Factor 1: clarity 9 Flyers and norms: cognitive stimuli 10 The Ten Commandment...

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  • Nam and Lan had been in love for two years. One day, Nam saw his lover went out with another man. He’s very angry and without thinking, he attacked the man with violence causing him a serious leg injury.”

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  • Diarrhea is one of the leading killers of children worldwide, accounting for 16% of deaths of children under five (World Health Organization [WHO], 2008). In Cambo- dia, diarrhea is the third leading cause of mortality for children under the age of five following neonatal causes and pneumonia (WHO, 2006).

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