Xem 1-20 trên 253 kết quả Causes of cancer
  • There have been a significant number of advances in the field of cancer research since the first edition of Cancer Biology, which was published in 1981. These include advances in defining the genetic and phenotypic changes in cancer cells, the genetic susceptibility to cancer, molecular imaging to detect smaller and smaller tumors, the regulation of gene expression, and the ‘‘-omics’’ techniquesofgenomics, proteomics,and metabolomics, among others.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 81. Principles of Cancer Treatment Principles of Cancer Treatment: Introduction The goal of cancer treatment is first to eradicate the cancer. If this primary goal cannot be accomplished, the goal of cancer treatment shifts to palliation, the amelioration of symptoms, and preservation of quality of life while striving to extend life. The dictum primum non nocere is not the guiding principle of cancer therapy. When cure of cancer is possible, cancer treatments may be undertaken despite the certainty of severe and perhaps life-threatening toxicities.

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  • Potential Biases of Screening Tests The common biases of screening are lead time, length-biased sampling, and selection. These biases can make a screening test seem beneficial when actually it is not (or even causes net harm). Whether beneficial or not, screening can create the false impression of an epidemic by increasing the number of cancers diagnosed. It can also produce a shift in proportion of patients diagnosed at an early stage that improves survival statistics without reducing mortality (i.e.

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  • Chemoprevention of Cancers of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract Smoking causes diffuse epithelial injury in the head, neck, esophagus, and lung. Patients cured of squamous cell cancers of the lung, esophagus, head, and neck are at risk (as high as 5% per year) of developing second cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cessation of cigarette smoking does not markedly decrease the cured cancer patient's risk of second malignancy, even though it does lower the cancer risk in those who have never developed a malignancy.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: Infectious causes of cancer and their detection...

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  • Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among men and women in the United States with 170,000 deaths per year. This exceeds the sum of the next three leading causes of death due to cancer: breast, colon, and prostate. There are over 1 million deaths worldwide due to lung cancer, making it truly an epidemic. Fewer than 15% achieve a 5-yr survival. The vast majority (85%) present with advanced disease, although stage I patients may have a 5-yr survival approaching 70% (1).

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 85. Neoplasms of the Lung The Magnitude of the Problem In 2007, primary carcinoma of the lung affected 114,760 males and 98,620 females in the United States; 86% die within 5 years of diagnosis, making it the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women. The incidence of lung cancer peaks between ages 55 and 65 years. Lung cancer accounts for 29% of all cancer deaths (31% in men, 26% in women). Lung cancer is responsible for more deaths in the United States each year than breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer combined;...

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  • Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal human malignancies with extremely poor prognosis making it the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. The molecular mechanisms of pancreatic carcinogenesis are not well understood. The major focus of these two books is towards the understanding of the basic biology of pancreatic carcinogenesis, identification of newer molecular targets and the development of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapies.

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  • Carcinoma of the lung is the most common cause of cancer-related death in men and women. Prognosis correlates strongly with stage of disease at presentation and to some degree with the histological subtype of the tumor. Histological classifications of lung cancer were somewhat arbitrary and a matter of convenience. However, multiple lines of differentiation are often found within a single tumor, if it is sufficiently sampled.

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  • Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in the U.S. (1). Although tobacco smoking is accepted as the number one cause of this devastating disease, our understanding of the acquired genetic changes leading to lung cancer is still rudimentary. Lung cancer is classifi ed into two major clinic-pathological groups, small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (2). Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are the major histologic types of NSCLC....

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  • Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck affects more than 40,000 people each year in the U.S., and at least 13,000 people each year die of this disease. In many countries, oral cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer incidence, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Sadly, these statistics have not improved despite clear delineation of tobacco and alcohol as contributory or etiologic in at least 80% of cases.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 86. Breast Cancer Breast Cancer: Introduction Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast. In the year 2007, about 180,510 cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,910 deaths occurred in the United States. Epithelial malignancies of the breast are the most common cause of cancer in women (excluding skin cancer), accounting for about one-third of all cancer in women.

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  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, World Health Organization) [ 1 ] estimated an incidence of 6,617,855 cancers around the world in 2008 with 4,219,626 deaths associated with this disease (IARC 2011).

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  • Cancer Around the World In 2002, 11 million new cancer cases and 7 million cancer deaths were estimated worldwide. When broken down by region of the world, ~45% of cases were in Asia, 26% in Europe, 14.5% in North America, 7.1% in Central/South America, 6% in Africa, and 1% in Australia/New Zealand (Fig. 77-3). Lung cancer is the most common cancer and the most common cause of cancer death in the world. Its incidence is highly variable, affecting only 2 per 100,000 African women but as many as 61 per 100,000 North American men. Breast cancer is the second...

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  • Cancer Chemoprevention Chemoprevention involves the use of specific natural or synthetic chemical agents to reverse, suppress, or prevent carcinogenesis before the development of invasive malignancy. Cancer develops through an accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes that are potential points of intervention to prevent cancer. The initial changes are termed initiation. The alteration can be inherited or acquired through the action of physical, infectious, or chemical carcinogens.

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  • Following demonstration of activity in animal models, conventional chemotherapeutic agents are further evaluated to define an optimal schedule of administration and arrive at a drug formulation designed for a given route and schedule. Safety testing in two species on an analogous schedule of administration defines the starting dose for a phase I trial in humans. This is established as a fraction, usually one-sixth to one-tenth, of the dose just causing easily reversible toxicity in the more sensitive animal species.

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  • Integration of cell death responses. Cell death through an apoptotic mechanism requires active participation of the cell. In response to interruption of growth factor (GF) or propagation of certain cytokine death signals (e.g., tumor necrosis factor receptor, TNF-R), there is activation of "upstream" cysteine aspartyl proteases (caspases), which then directly digest cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins, resulting in activation of "downstream" caspases; these cause activation of nucleases, resulting in the characteristic DNA fragmentation that is a hallmark of apoptosis. ...

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  • Mitomycin C undergoes reduction of its quinone function to generate a bifunctional DNA alkylating agent. It is a broadly active antineoplastic agent with a number of unpredictable toxicities, including delayed bronchospasm 12–14 h after dosing and a chronic pulmonary fibrosis syndrome more frequent at doses of 50–60 mg/m2. Cardiomyopathy has been described, particularly in a setting of prior radiation therapy. A hemolytic/uremic syndrome carries an ultimate mortality rate of 25–50% and is poorly treated by conventional component support and exchange transfusion.

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  • The taxanes include paclitaxel and docetaxel. These agents differ from the vinca alkaloids in that the taxanes stabilize microtubules against depolymerization. The "stabilized" microtubules function abnormally and are not able to undergo the normal dynamic changes of microtubule structure and function necessary for cell cycle completion. Taxanes are among the most broadly active antineoplastic agents for use in solid tumors, with evidence of activity in ovarian cancer, breast cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and lung tumors.

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  • Nausea and Vomiting The most common side effect of chemotherapy administration is nausea, with or without vomiting. Nausea may be acute (within 24 h of chemotherapy), delayed (24 h), or anticipatory of the receipt of chemotherapy. Patients may be likewise stratified for their risk of susceptibility to nausea and vomiting, with increased risk in young, female, heavily pretreated patients without a history of alcohol or drug use but with a history of motion or morning sickness. Antineoplastic agents vary in their capacity to cause nausea and vomiting. ...

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