A novel hypoxically regulated intercellular junction protein
(claudin-like protein of 24 kDa, CLP24) hasbeen identified
that shows homology to the myelin protein 22/epithelial
membrane protein 1/claudin family of cell junction proteins,
which are involved in the modulation of paracellular per-meability. The CLP24 protein containsfour predicted
transmembrane domains and a C-terminal protein–protein
Nephrin is a signalling cell–cell adhesion protein of the Ig superfamily and
the first identified component of the slit diaphragm that forms the critical
and ultimate part of the glomerular ultrafiltration barrier. The extracellular
domains of the nephrin molecules form a network of homophilic and
heterophilic interactions building the structural scaffold of the slit dia-phragm between the podocyte foot processes.
We reported previously that the major cysteine protease in
embryos and larvaeof thebrine shrimp,Artemia franciscana,
is a heterodimeric protein consisting of a catalytic subunit
(28.5 kDa) with a high degree of homology with cathep-sin L, and a noncatalytic subunit (31.5 kDa) of unknown
function. In the study reportedhere thenoncatalytic subunit,
or cathepsin L-associated protein (CLAP), was separated
from cathepsin L by chromatography on Mono S and
found tocontainmultiple isoformswithpIs ranging from5.9
The tight junction protein occludin participates in cell adhesion and migra-tion and has been shown to possess antitumorigenic properties; however,
the exact mechanism underlying these effects is poorly understood. In liver
cell lines, we identified an occludin splice variant deleted in exon 9
Cadherins belong to a family of homophilic cell–cell adhesion proteins that
are responsible for the establishment of a precise cell architecture and tissue
integrity. Moreover, experimental data suggest that loss of intercellular
adhesion is inversely correlated with cellular differentiation. Furthermore,
dedifferentiation is closely linked to tumor progression.
The interaction between cell-adhesion molecules CD2 and
CD58 is critical for an immune response. Modulation or
inhibition of these interactions has been shown to be thera-peuticallyuseful. Synthetic 12-mer linear and cyclic peptides,
and cyclic hexapeptides based on rat CD2 protein, were
designed tomodulateCD2–CD58 interaction. The synthetic
peptides effectively blocked the interaction between CD2–
CD58 proteins as demonstrated by antibody binding,
E-rosetting and heterotypic adhesion assays. ...
Talins are large adaptor proteins that link the integrin family of adhesion
molecules to F-actin. In vertebrates, there are two talin genes.Talin 1is
essential for integrin-mediated cell adhesion; the role oftalin 2 is unclear.
Here we report a detailed analysis of mammaliantalin 2.
“Advances in Prostate Cancer” is an addition to the InTech collection of three previous
books about prostate cancer and aims at providing a comprehensive overview of specific
aspects of the latest research and current knowledge relating to this tumor entity to
scientists and clinicians. For this purpose a series of research articles, clinical investigations
and reviews that deal with a wide range of relevant aspects pertinent to the epidemiology,
diagnosis, patient care, treatment and basic biology of prostate cancer were included.
Mutations in the human Crumbs homologue 1 (CRB1) gene are a frequent
cause of various forms of retinitis pigmentosa. The CRB1–membrane-asso-ciated palmitoylated protein (MPP)5 protein complex is thought to organ-ize an intracellular protein scaffold in the retina that is involved in
maintenance of photoreceptor–Mu¨ller glia cell adhesion.
The dipeptidyl peptidase IV gene family contains the four peptidases dipept-idyl peptidase IV, fibroblast activation protein, dipeptidyl peptidase 8 and
dipeptidyl peptidase 9. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV and fibroblast activation
protein are involved in cell–extracellular matrix interactions and tissue re-modeling.
It is essential to subculture the cells once cultured cells reach confluence. For this, trypsin is frequently applied to dissociate adhesive cells from the substratum. However, due to the proteolytic activity of trypsin, cell surface proteins are often cleaved, which leads to dysregulation of the cell functions. Methods: In this study, a triplicate 2D-DIGE strategy has been performed to monitor trypsin-induced proteome alterations. The differentially expressed spots were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and validated by...
Dendritic cells can enhance the replication of HIV-1 in CD4
through the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with such molecules
as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing noninte-grin. The variable loops of gp120 have previously been shown to modulate
the interaction of HIV-1 with its principal receptor CD4 and its various
coreceptors, namely CCR5 and CXCR4.
The metalloproteinase pregnancy-associated plasma pro-tein-A (PAPP-A) cleaves a subset of insulin-like growth
factor binding proteins (IGFBP), which inhibit the activities
of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Through this proteolytic
activity, PAPP-A is believed to regulate IGF bioavailability
in several biological systems, including the human repro-ductive system and the cardiovascular system. PAPP-A
adheres to mammalian cells by interactions with glycos-aminoglycan (GAG), thus targeting the proteolytic activity
of PAPP-A to the cell surface. ...
Transglutaminase 2 (TG2; EC 184.108.40.206) is the most abundantly expressed member of the transglutaminase family and exerts opposing effects on cell
growth, differentiation and apoptosis via multiple activities, including transamidase, GTPase, cell adhesion, protein disulfide isomerase, kinase
and scaffold activities.
The small G protein Rap1 regulates diverse cellular processes such as inte-grin activation, cell adhesion, cell–cell junction formation and cell polarity.
It is crucial to identify Rap1 effectors to better understand the signalling
pathways controlling these processes.
Adhesive properties of endothelial cells are influenced by the thioldisulfide
balance. However, the molecular mechanism of this effect is unclear,
although recent observations indicate that integrin receptors may be direct
targets for redox modulation. The purpose of this study was to examine
whether protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is directly involved in this pro-cess.
Several microbial pathogens have been reported to interact
with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) on cell surfaces and in the
extracellularmatrix. Herewe demonstrate thatM protein, a
major surface-expressed virulence factor of the human bac-terial pathogen, Streptococcus pyogenes, mediates binding
to various forms of GAGs. Hence, S. pyogenesstrains
expressing a large number of different types of M proteins
bound to dermatan sulfate (DS), highly sulfated fractions of
heparan sulfate (HS) and heparin, whereas strains deficient
in M protein surface expression failed to interact with these
aIIbb3, a member of the integrin family of adhesive protein
receptors, is the most abundant glycoprotein on platelet
plasma-membranes and binds to adhesive proteins via the
recognition of short amino acid sequences, for example the
ubiquitous RGD motif.However, elucidation of the ligand-binding domains of the receptor remains controversial,
mainly owing to the fact that integrins are conformationally
labile during purification and storage.
The effect of insulin on cancer metastatic potential was
studied in a human hepatocarcinoma cell line, H7721. Cell
adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells
(HUVECs) and lamininaswell as chemotactic cellmigration
and invasion were selected as the indices of metastasis-related phenotypes for assessment of metastatic potential
ex vivo. The results indicated that insulin enhanced all of
these metastasis-related phenotypes.
Opacity-associated (Opa) proteins are outer membrane
proteins which play a critical role in the adhesion of patho-genicNeisseriaspp. to epithelial and endothelial cells and
polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The adherence is mainly
mediated by the CD66-epitope-containing members of the
carcinoembryonic-antigen family of human cell-adhesion
molecules (CEACAM). For the analysis of the specific in-teractions of individual Opa proteins with their receptors,
pure protein is needed in its native conformation. ...