We examined the effects ofEscherichia coliribosomal pro-tein S12 mutations on the efficiency of cell-free protein syn-thesis. By screening 150 spontaneous streptomycin-resistant
isolates from E. coliBL21, we successfully obtained seven
mutants of the S12 protein, including two streptomycin-dependent mutants. The mutations occurred at Lys42,
Lys87, Pro90 and Gly91 of the 30S ribosomal protein S12.
We prepared S30 extracts frommutant cells harvested in the
Loss of tumor suppressors contributes to numerous cancer types. Many, but
not all, proteins encoded by tumor suppressor genes have antiproliferative activity
and halt cell-cycle progression. In this chapter, we present three methods
that have been utilized to monitor the antimitogenic action exerted by tumor
suppressors. Tumor suppressor function can be demonstrated by colony formation
assays and acquisition of the flat-cell phenotype.
The purpose of this book is to provide an up-to-date view of latest research advances in the design of efficient small-scale energy harvesters through contributions of internationally recognized researchers. The book covers the physics of the energy conversion, the elaboration of electroactive materials and their application to the conception of a complete microgenerator, and is organized according to the input energy source.
Diatoms differ from higher plants by their antenna system, in terms of
both polypeptide and pigment contents. A rapid isolation procedure was
designed for the membrane-intrinsic light harvesting complexes (LHC) of
the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutumto establish whether different LHC
subcomplexes exist, as well to determine an uneven distribution between
them of pigments and polypeptides.
Biofuels Engineering Process Technology has many contents: Harvesting Energy from Biochemical Reactions, Microbial Modeling of Biofuel Production, Biofuel Feedstocks, Ethanol Production, Biodiesel, Biological Production of Hydrogen, Microbial Fuel Cells.
For cell-based bone tissue engineering, various tissues derived cells are utilized since
osteogenic cells can be harvested from bone marrow, periosteum, and adipose tissue,
though recent studies indicate that bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, bone marrow
derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, or mesenchymal stem cells) are the most
reliable cell source because of their superior osteogenic ability (Hayashi et al., 2008).
However, it is difficult to obtain adequate numbers of transplantable BMSCs from bone
marrow aspirates, as they are rare in the bone marrow (less than 0.
Storage of putative stem/progenitor cells is also an attractive research target in tissue
engineering. Collection of cells for tissue engineering is less invasive than conventional
tissue or organ transplantation. However, repetitive collection of cells can stress patients. If
the stem/progenitor cells could be stored, it is possible that they could be repeatedly used
for future therapy, reducing the burden and the cost to patients. The concept of banking
stem/progenitor cells in storage is not new. Stem/progenitor cell populations decrease in
size with age (D'Ippolito et al.
Phototrophy is the process by which organisms trap photons and store energy as chemical
energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP transports chemical energy within
cells for metabolism. There are three major types of phototrophy: Oxygenic and Anoxygenic
photosynthesis, and Rhodopsin-based phototrophy. Photosynthesis is a chemical process
that converts carbon dioxide into different organic compounds using solar energy. Oxygenic
and anoxygenic photosynthesis undergo different reactions in the presence and absence of
light (called light and dark reactions, respectively).
Over the last decade, PV technology has shown the potential to become a major source of
power generation for the world – with robust and continuous growth even during times of
financial and economic crisis. That growth is expected to continue in the years ahead as
worldwide awareness of the advantages of PV increases. At the end of 2009, the world’s PV
cumulative installed capacity was approaching 23 GW. One year later it was 40 GW. In 2011,
more than 69 GW are installed globally and...
The proliferation of low-power and ultralow-power electronics has enabled a rapid
growth of autonomous devices that ranges from consumer electronics and nomad
devices to autonomous sensors and sensor networks used in industrial and military
environments. Hence, a wide range of application domains has been impacted by such
technologies (aeronautic, civil engineering,biomedical engineering, home automation,
Only human females and some other higher primates have a regular
monthly menstrual cycle. Humans, however, are able to mate at any time.
Females of almost all other mammal species will mate only at speciﬁc
times during a year. These times are known as estrus or “heat.” It is only
during estrus that egg cells are released for fertilization. Estrus occurs in
wolves and deer once a year, in dogs usually twice a year, in cows and
horses once a month, and in rats and mice every few days.
Ovulation, mating, and fertilization occur on a speciﬁc timetable.
Perhaps unsurprisingly, the ethical debate on cloning
tended to blur the lines of separation between the church
and state, to an extent that had not been so obvious at
the international level for some time. This highly charged
issue challenges the bases of many religious beliefs and
places science and religion at loggerheads. Questions
were raised such as, whether it is appropriate to allow
for the creation and destruction of embryos for the sole
purpose of harvesting stem cells which may save the
life of a sick person is at the very heart of this debate.
There are currently 11 state buy-down programs for renewable energy technologies, all of
which have been initiated within the past several years. Nearly all of these programs are
funded by public benefits funds and administered by the state’s energy office, third-party
fund administrator, or individual utilities. All of the buy-down programs fund PV
installations, with several states targeting PV exclusively. About half of the programs also
support wind technology development. A few programs include solar thermal systems or fuel
cells as eligible technologies.
We investigated the metabolism ofl-lactate in mitochondria isolated from
potato tubers grown and saved after harvest in the absence of any chemical
agents. Immunologic analysis by western blot using goat polyclonal anti-lactate dehydrogenase showed the existence of a mitochondrial lactate
dehydrogenase, the activity of which could be measured photometrically
only in mitochondria solubilized with Triton X-100.
The photosynthetic protein complexes in plants are located
in the chloroplast thylakoid membranes. These membranes
have an ultrastructure that consists of tightly stackedÔgranaÕ
regions interconnectedbyunstackedmembrane regions.The
structure of isolated granamembranes has been studiedhere
by cryo-electron microscopy. The data reveals an unusual
arrangement of the photosynthetic protein complexes,
staggered over two tightly stacked planes.
Cambridge researchers César
Milstein and George Köhler won a
Nobel Prize in 1984 for their work
developing monoclonal antibodies
(mAbs). Each mAb is a speciﬁc
antibody, a ‘magic bullet’ protein that
targets and attacks one particular
substance or cell. Milstein and Köhler
found a way to produce these magic
bullets in unlimited quantities.
mAbs are proteins produced in
the laboratory from the cells of
the immune system that make
The storage of tissue-engineered products is an attractive target for technological
development. Since tissue-engineered products usually consist of living cells, technical
issues include the limited shelf life of the cells and the use of specialized conditions for
transportation. Without storage, treatment with cells requires timely harvesting from the
donor, which significantly affects the availability of tissue-engineered products.
An extracellular lipase, LipA, extracted fromAcinetobacter
sp. RAG-1 grown on hexadecane was purified and proper-ties of the enzyme investigated. The enzyme is released into
the growth medium during the transition to stationary
phase. The lipase was harvested from cells grown to sta-tionary phase, and purified with 22% yield and 10-fold
purification. The protein demonstrates little affinity for
anionexchange resins,withcontaminatingproteins removed
by passing crude supernatants over a Mono Q column....
Chapter 9 - Cellular respiration: harvesting chemical energy. After studying this chapter you will be able to: Explain in general terms how redox reactions are involved in energy exchanges; name the three stages of cellular respiration, for each, state the region of the eukaryotic cell where it occurs and the products that result; in general terms, explain the role of the electron transport chain in cellular respiration;...