Therefore, ex vivo expansion of BMSCs is required to obtain a
sufficient number of transplantable cells. Since BMSCs require several kinds of supportive
factors for their growth, it is standard practice to use fetal bovine serum (FBS), while
autologous human serum (HS) and pooled allogeneic HS have also been used. It has been
suggested that FBS may not be favorable for clinical applications due to the possible risk of
contamination (prions, viruses, zoonosis) or immunological reactions against xenogeneic
serum antigens (Agata et al., 2009).
A global research community of scientists is teasing out the biochemical mechanisms that regulate normal cellular physiology in a variety of organisms. Much of current research aims to understand the network of molecular reactions that regulate cellular homeostasis, and to learn what allows cells to sense stress and activate appropriate biochemical responses.
Tissue culture was first devised at the beginning of the
twentieth century [Harrison, 1907; Carrel, 1912] (Table 1.1)
as a method for studying the behavior of animal cells free
of systemic variations that might arise in vivo both during
normal homeostasis and under the stress of an experiment.
As the name implies, the technique was elaborated first
with undisaggregated fragments of tissue, and growth was
restricted to the migration of cells from the tissue fragment,
with occasional mitoses in the outgrowth.
The advantages of diagnostic cytology are that it is a non-invasive, simple procedure, helps
in faster reporting, is relatively inexpensive, has high population acceptance and facilitates
cancer screening in the field. Diagnostic cytology can be carried out by different methods,
which includes collection and examination of exfoliated cells such as vaginal scrapes, sputum,
urine, body fluids etc. Collection of cells by brushing, scraping or abrasive techniques is
usually employed to confirm or exclude malignancy.
Glutaredoxins (Grxs) have been shown to be critical in maintaining redox
homeostasis in living cells. Recently, an emerging subgroup of Grxs with
one cysteine residue in the putative active motif (monothiol Grxs) has been
The activation of ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with
thrombospondin motifs) family proteases depends on removal of the
prodomain. Although several studies suggest that ADAMTS activities play
roles in development, homeostasis and disease, it remains unclear
when and where the enzymes are activated in vivo.