This book presents a full spectrum of views on current approaches to modeling cell mechanics. The authors of this book come from the biophysics, bioengineering, and physical chemistry communities and each joins the discussion with a unique perspective on biological systems. Consequently, the approaches range from ﬁnite element methods commonly used in continuum mechanics to models of the cytoskeleton as a cross-linked polymer network to models of glassy materials and gels.
In recent years, a considerable amount of research has been focused on estab-lishing the epigenetic mechanisms associated with DNA and the core
histones. This effort is driven by the fact that epigenetics is intimately
involved with genomics in a whole range of molecular processes. However,
there is now a consensus that the epigenetics of the linker histones are just as
(BQ) Part 1 book "Elsevier's integrated review genetics" presents the following contents: Basic mechanisms, chromosomes in the cell, mechanisms of inheritance, genetics of metabolic disorders, cancer genetics, hematologic genetics and disorders.
Solar cells are optoelectronic devices that convert the energy of solar radiation directly
into electricity by the photovoltaic (PV) effect. Assemblies of cells electrically
connected together are known as PV modules, or solar panels. The photovoltaic effect
was first recognized in the 19th century but the modern PV cells were developed in
the mid-1950s. The practical application of photovoltaics started to provide energy for
The third book of four-volume edition of “Solar Cells” is devoted to solar cells based on
silicon wafers, i.e., the main material used in today's photovoltaics. Single-crystalline Si
(c-Si) modules are among the most efficient but at the same time the most expensive
since they require the highest purity silicon and involve a lot of stages of complicated
processes in their manufacture. Polycrystalline silicon (mc-Si) cells are less expensive to
produce solar cells but are less efficient.
This text provides the student and professional mechanical engineer with a reference text of an essentially practical nature. It is uncluttered by text, and extensive use of illustrations and tables provide quick and clear access to information. It also includes examples of detailed calculations on many of the applications of technology used by mechanical and production engineers, draughtsmen and engineering designers.
Photovoltaics covers an extremely wide range of different fields of science and
technology that are in a state of continuous development and improvement for
decades. Solar cells and models that have been developed to the level of industrial
production or prototype samples, as well as the devices of exploratory types are
divided into the so-called generations of photovoltaics. Chapters, which concern the
problems of the first, second and third generations of solar cells are included in the
relevant three books of this edition....
SOLAR CELLS – DYE-SENSITIZED DEVICES
Edited by Leonid A. Kosyachenko
.Solar Cells – Dye-Sensitized Devices Edited by Leonid A. Kosyachenko
Most solar modules used in photovoltaics are currently produced from crystalline and
polycrystalline silicon wafers, the representatives of so-called first generation of solar
cells. This type of devices are among the most efficient but at the same time the most
expensive since they require the highest purity silicon and involve a lot of stages of
complicated processes in their manufacture.
Regions and gates can be made to better separate and analyze populations of interest.
Furthermore, on the basis that the dyes used to stain cells have overlapping emission
spectra, the compensation is normally made to reduce interference.
While basic instruments may only permit the simultaneous collection of two or three
fluorescence signals, the more complex and expensive research instruments mean that it is
possible to obtain more than 14 parameters (Winson & Davey, 2000; Chattopadhyay et al.,
2008) depending on the laser equipment utilized.
The medical consequences of
operating outside of the normal boundaries of a well tuned musculo-tendinous system are
also poorly understood, although clearly recognized in the persistent atrophy experienced
in microgravity despite rigorous exercise programs.
Muscle force generation is length and velocity sensitive. The process is repetitive in the
sense that muscles will always generate force based on their length-tension and forcevelocity
properties, causing tendon deformation.
Induction of p53 by the DNA damage and oncogene checkpoints.
In response to noxious stimuli, p53 and mdm2 are phosphorylated by the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and related ATR serine/threonine kinases, as well as the immediated downstream checkpoint kinases, Chk1 and Chk2. This causes dissociation of p53 from mdm2, leading to increased p53 protein levels and transcription of genes leading to cell cycle arrest (p21Cip1/Waf1) or apoptosis (e.g., the proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members Noxa and Puma).
Antiangiogenic Therapy Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate tumor angiogenesis may provide unique opportunities for cancer treatment. Acquired drug resistance of tumor cells due to their high intrinsic mutation rate is a major cause of treatment failure in human cancers. ECs comprising the tumor vasculature are genetically stable and do not share genetic changes with tumor cells; the EC apoptosis pathways are therefore intact.
Numerous virus–target cell interactions have been described, and it is now clear that different viruses can use similar host-cell receptors for entry. The list of certain and likely host receptors for viral pathogens is long. Among the host membrane components that can serve as receptors for viruses are sialic acids, gangliosides, glycosaminoglycans, integrins and other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, histocompatibility antigens, and regulators and receptors for complement components.
Encounters with Epithelial Cells
Over the past decade, many bacterial pathogens have been shown to enter epithelial cells (Fig. 114-2); the bacteria often use specialized surface structures that bind to receptors, with consequent internalization. However, the exact role and the importance of this process in infection and disease are not well defined for most of these pathogens. Bacterial entry into host epithelial cells is seen as a means for dissemination to adjacent or deeper tissues or as a route to sanctuary to avoid ingestion and killing by professional phagocytes.
GPI-anchored receptors do not have intracellular signaling domains. Instead, the mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) transduce signals for cellular activation due to LPS binding. It has recently been shown that binding of microbial factors to TLRs to activate signal transduction occurs not on the cell surface, but rather in the phagosome of cells that have internalized the microbe. This interaction is probably due to the release of the microbial surface factor from the cell in the environment of the phagosome, where the liberated factor can bind to its cognate TLRs.
(See also Chap. 161) All viral pathogens must bind to host cells, enter them, and replicate within them. Viral coat proteins serve as the ligands for cellular entry, and more than one ligand-receptor interaction may be needed; for example, HIV uses its envelope glycoprotein (gp) 120 to enter host cells by binding to both CD4 and one of two receptors for chemokines (designated CCR5 and CXCR4). Similarly, the measles virus H glycoprotein binds to both CD46 and the membrane-organizing protein moesin on host cells.