Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Liver sinusoidal endothelial cell modulation upon resection and shear stress in vitro...
Estrogen receptors (ERs) and androgen receptors, members of the steroid hormone family of nuclear receptors, are targets of inhibition by drugs used to treat breast and prostate cancers, respectively. Tamoxifen, a partial agonist and antagonist of ER function, can mediate tumor regression in metastatic breast cancer and can prevent disease recurrence in the adjuvant setting, saving thousands of lives each year. Tamoxifen binds to the ER and modulates its transcriptional activity, inhibiting activity in the breast but promoting activity in bone and uterine epithelium.
The chapters in this book review the latest advances in the molecular mechanisms of autophagy, highlighting some of the most challenging research topics. The focus is mainly on how this basic cell defense mechanism comes into play in various pathologies, including liver diseases, myopathies, infectious diseases, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. In these diseases, the contradictory autophagy roles of cell survival versus cell death emphasize the necessity of taking into account this double-edged nature in future development of already promising, autophagy- modulating, therapies....
Retinoids are potent immune modulators that inhibit Fas ligand (FasL) expression and thereby repress the activationinduced apoptosis of immature thymocytes and T-cell hybridomas. In this study, we demonstrate that all-transretinoic acid (all-trans-RA) directly represses the transcriptional activity of the nuclear factors of activated T-cells (NFAT), which is an important transactivator of the FasL promoter.
Humanb-defensin-2 (HBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide produced by the
epithelial cells that plays an important role in innate and adaptive immu-nity. Here we report that high mobility group protein N2 (HMGN2), a
member of the high mobility group superfamily that affects chromatin
function, modulates the expression of HBD-2 in A549 cells treated by lipo-polysaccharide.
Tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) are protein domains that mediate key
protein–protein interactions in cells. Several TPR domains bind the C-ter-mini of the chaperones heat shock protein (Hsp)90 and⁄or Hsp70, and
exchange of such binding partners is key for the heat shock response.
channel KAT1 has been suggested to play a
key role in the regulation of the aperture of stomatal pores on the surface
of plant leaves. Calcium-dependent and calcium-independent signaling
pathways are involved in abscisic acid-mediated regulation of guard cell
turgidity. Although the activity of the KAT1 channel is thought to be regu-lated by calcium-dependent protein kinases, the effect of phosphorylation
on KAT1 and the phosphorylated target sites remain elusive.
Enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenicEscherichia coliproduce various
effector proteins that are directly injected into the host-cell cytosol through
the type III secretion system. E. colisecreted protein (Esp)B is one such
effector protein, and affects host-cell morphology by reorganizing actin net-works.
Jasmonic acid (JA) and its derivates, collectively known as jasmonates
(JAs), are essential signalling molecules that coordinate the plant response
to biotic and abiotic challenges, in addition to several developmental pro-cesses. The COI1 F-box and additional SCF modulators have long been
known to have a crucial role in the JA-signalling pathway.
The drug concentration inside multidrug-resistant cells is the outcome of
competition between the active export of drugs by drug efflux pumps, such
as P-glycoprotein (Pgp), and the passive permeation of drugs across the
plasma membrane. Thus, reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) can occur
either by inhibition of the efflux pumps or by acceleration of the drug per-meation.
Solid tumours are complex structures in which the interdependent relation-ship between tumour and endothelial cells modulates tumour development
and metastasis dissemination. The tumour microenvironment plays an
important role in this cell interplay, and changes in its features have a
major impact on tumour growth as well as on anticancer therapy respon-siveness.
The soluble members of the three-finger protein superfamily all share a
relatively simple ‘three-finger’ structure, yet perform radically different
functions. Plethodontid modulating factor (PMF), a pheromone protein
produced by the lungless salamander,Plethodon shermani, is a new and
unusual member of this group.
Carbaryl (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate), a widely used carbamate insecti-cide, induces cytochrome P450 1A gene expression in mammalian cells.
This activity is usually mediated by the interaction of the compound with
the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Dendritic cells can enhance the replication of HIV-1 in CD4
through the interaction of the gp120 envelope protein with such molecules
as dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing noninte-grin. The variable loops of gp120 have previously been shown to modulate
the interaction of HIV-1 with its principal receptor CD4 and its various
coreceptors, namely CCR5 and CXCR4.
The metalloproteinase pregnancy-associated plasma pro-tein-A (PAPP-A) cleaves a subset of insulin-like growth
factor binding proteins (IGFBP), which inhibit the activities
of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Through this proteolytic
activity, PAPP-A is believed to regulate IGF bioavailability
in several biological systems, including the human repro-ductive system and the cardiovascular system. PAPP-A
adheres to mammalian cells by interactions with glycos-aminoglycan (GAG), thus targeting the proteolytic activity
of PAPP-A to the cell surface. ...
A novel hypoxically regulated intercellular junction protein
(claudin-like protein of 24 kDa, CLP24) hasbeen identified
that shows homology to the myelin protein 22/epithelial
membrane protein 1/claudin family of cell junction proteins,
which are involved in the modulation of paracellular per-meability. The CLP24 protein containsfour predicted
transmembrane domains and a C-terminal protein–protein
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) is an
immediate early gene-encoded polypeptide modulating cell
growth and collagen synthesis. The importance of CTGF/
CCN2 function is highlighted by its disregulation in fibrotic
disorders. In this study, we investigated the regulation and
signaling pathways that are required for various stimuli of
intracellular signaling events to induce the expression of the
endogenous CTGF/CCN2gene in smooth muscle cells.
Asheat shockproteins (Hsps) are involved inprotecting cells
and also in the pathophysiology of diseases such as inflam-mation, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders, modula-tors ofHsp expression inmammalian cells would seemto be
useful for the treatment of various diseases. In this study, we
isolated mammalian cell lines for screening of Hsp modu-lators; mouse C3H10T1/2 cells stably transfected with a
plasmid containing the mouse Hsp105 or human Hsp70B
promoter upstream of a luciferase or b-galactosidase
reporter gene, respectively....
Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) is a proline-specific oligopepti-dase with a reported effect on learning and memory in dif-ferent rat model systems. Using the astroglioma cell line
U343,PEP expression was reduced by an antisense
technique. Measuring different second-messenger concen-trations revealed an inverse correlation between inositol
1,4,5-triphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] concentration and PEP
expression in the generated antisense cell lines. However,no
effect on cAMP generation was observed.
The HMGN family comprises nuclear proteins that bind to nucleosomes
and alter the structure of chromatin. Here, we report that DT40 chicken
cells lacking eitherHMGN2orHMGN1a, or lacking both HMGN1aand
HMGN2, are hypersensitive to killing by UV irradiation. Loss of both
HMGN1aand HMGN2or only HMGN2increases the extent of UV-induced G2
–M checkpoint arrest and the rate of apoptosis.