Xem 1-20 trên 117 kết quả Cell problem
  • When fuel cells were first suggested and discussed back in the nineteenth century, it was firmly hoped that distinctly higher efficiencies could be attained with them when converting the chemical energy of natural fuels to electric power. Now that the world supply of fossil fuels is seen to be finite, this hope turns into a need, into a question of maintaining advanced standards of life.

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  • As populations increase and countries industrialize, the world’s demand for energy increases. Our supply of petroleum and gas is limited, but the photovoltaic cell offers a solution to the problem of a future energy shortage. This cell is already an important source of energy. In fact, it seems almost like magic. The photovoltaic cell changes sunlight directly into energy. Solar energy – energy from the sun – is clean, easily available, inexhaustible, and free, if the equipment is available....

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  • Diabetes Mellitus The success of islet cell and pancreas transplantation provides proof of concept for a cell-based approach for type I diabetes. However, the demand for donor pancreata far exceeds the number available, and maintenance of long-term graft survival remains a problem. The search for a renewable source of stem cells capable of regenerating pancreatic islets has therefore been intensive. Pancreatic βcell turnover occurs in the normal pancreas, although the source of the new βcells is controversial.

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  • Ebook "Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Human Anatomy and Physiology" introduction to the human body, cellular chemistry, cell structure and function, tissues, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscle tissue and mode of contraction, muscular system, nervous tissue, central nervous system, peripheral and autonomic nervous system,... Invite you to refer to the ebook content more learning materials and research.

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  • Twenty years after the discovery of neural stem cells, the question whether the central nervous system can be considered among regenerative tissues is still open. On one side, deep characterization of neural stem and progenitor cells, their niches, and their progeny in brain neurogenic sites overtly showed that new neurons can be generated in the brain of adult mammals, including humans.

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  • Important player for the regulation of gingival connective tissue homeostasis is the fibroblast, cell able to synthesize and breakdown the collagen fibers and other proteins from the ground substance. In vitro studies have shown that fibroblasts from human normal gingiva produce collagens type I and type III, while cells derived from gingiva of patients with chronic periodontitis failed to produce detectable amounts of type III collagen (Hammouda et al., 1980; Chavier et al., 1984, as cited in Bartold & Narayanan, 2006)....

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  • Electrical energy plays an important role in our daily life. It can universally be applied and easily be converted into light, heat or mechanical energy. A general problem, however, is that electrical energy can hardly be stored. Capacitors allow its direct storage, but the quantities are small, compared to the demand of most applications. In general, the storage of electrical energy requires its conversion into another form of energy.

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  • Photovoltaics covers an extremely wide range of different fields of science and technology that are in a state of continuous development and improvement for decades. Solar cells and models that have been developed to the level of industrial production or prototype samples, as well as the devices of exploratory types are divided into the so-called generations of photovoltaics. Chapters, which concern the problems of the first, second and third generations of solar cells are included in the relevant three books of this edition....

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  • Currently, adult cells seem to have certain advantages regarding rapid clinical translation. Most biomaterials used in Tissue Engineering are based on acellular matrices or polyglycolic acid. Both materials must provide tissue support until the cells produce their own extracellular matrix. Ideally, they degrade thereafter without any toxic byproducts. Over the last years we started to understand the influence of the biomechanical environment allowing these cell-biomaterial composites to unfold their full functional potential.

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  • They use geological and distribution data on the island’s 1,284 plant genera and more than 2,000 endemic plant taxa to identify 19 biomes there, and they describe complex conservation challenges. The next chapter by Benny Chan and Pei-Fen Lee explores the biogeography of the barnacles of Taiwan, relating taxon distributions to coastal geomorphology and the complex array of oceanic currents around the island. Global climate changes in ocean water temperature may permit southerly, warmwater taxa to expand northward, invading habitat presently occupied by coldwater taxa....

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  • In 2005, the baseline country studies pointed to a lack of connection between advocacy for reduction of maternal mortality in national-level planning and the necessary linkage to effective programmatic responses through resource allocation, capacity- building and human-resource development. The 2011 case-studies suggest that this problem persists: despite a closing of the gap between policy and programmes, the limited progress with improving health outcomes has shown the importance of strengthening health systems – particularly for maternal and newborn health.

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  • Ian and Jane also became involved in processing and marketing their own products about five years ago. They found that there is a lot to learn about running a paddock- to-plate supply chain, including hiring staff and building strategic partnerships. Employment problems, particularly recruiting and training the right people, proved to be a significant issue for the business.

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  • The problems associated with the frenetic combustion of fossil fuels are many: pollution, global warming, and foreseeable exhaustion of resources, among others. Although difficult to estimate, the costs associated with these problems are huge and indirect,8 and may be financial, human, or both. Costs induced by pollution include, but are not limited to, health expenses, the cost of replanting forests devastated by acid rain, and the cost of cleaning and fixing monuments corroded by acid rain. Health expenses probably represent the largest share of these costs, especially in developed...

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  • A distinction is to be made between the terms 'efficacy' and 'effectiveness'. Efficacy is defined as "the probability of benefit to individuals in a defined population from a medical technology applied for a given medical problem under ideal conditions of use". By contrast, effectiveness is considered to have all the attributes of efficacy but to reflect "performance under ordinary conditions by the average practitioner for the typical patient" [12].

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  • Clean air is a basic requirement of life. The quality of air inside homes, offices, schools, day care centres, public buildings, health care facilities or other private and public buildings where people spend a large part of their life is an essential determinant of healthy life and people’s well-being. Hazardous substances emit- ted from buildings, construction materials and indoor equipment or due to hu- man activities indoors, such as combustion of fuels for cooking or heating, lead to a broad range of health problems and may even be fatal....

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  • The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) was carried out between 2001 and 2005 to assess the consequences of ecosystem change for human well-being and to establish the basis for actions needed to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems and their contributions to human well-being.

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  • We have mainly regarded elderly people’s use of information technology in their daily lives as ICT training of elderly people. We have also discussed the possibilities and limitations that technology raises for information, activity and for better contact with others. The use of ICT in nursing and care of elderly people mainly implies in this connection the use of smart-home technology in houses for old people and people with dementia. This technology involves the use of integrated ICT components.

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  • As a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be started instantly at ambient temperatures and can work with air as oxidant without carbon dioxide problems, it is so far the most viable fuel cell (FC) system that has the potential to replace internal combustion engines (ICEs) and batteries for transportation applications to power cars, buses, and personal electric vehicles (PEVs). This article focuses on the application of this technology for light traction vehicles, such as scooters, bicycles, forklifts, wheelchairs, and tour carts. ...

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  • The English poet, John Keats, explored this relationship when he asked: “Do we retreat from the reality of the outer world into ourselves at times, or do we retreat from the pressures of the outside world into the reality of our inner selves?” (Philipp, 2001a). In taking this question further, the doctor-poet, Dannie Abse, musing on it in 1993, noted that: “imaginative daydreaming is an escape from the precipitous pessimism of living or dealing with problems and the sphere of sorrows, and it is used to restore balance” (op.cit.).

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  • Recently, Th17 cells were identified as a new subset of T helper cells unrelated to Th1 or Th2 cells. They are a subset of T helper cells characterized by IL-17 production, differentiated from naïve T cells in the presence of both transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and IL-6 in mice, and are implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) (Langrish et al. 2005).

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