The book Cell Interaction focuses on various processes that occur within and outside the cells. Cell interactions are important for functioning of many organ systems: cell adhesion, tissue development, cellular communication, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and microbial infection. Key features include developmental cell interactions, immune and neural cell interactions, cell interactions in normal and disease conditions and advanced level methods to evaluate cell interactions.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Retrovirology cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Analysis of Prototype Foamy Virus particle-host cell interaction with autofluorescent retroviral particles...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: " Alveolar macrophage-epithelial cell interaction following exposure to atmospheric particles induces the release of mediators involved in monocyte mobilization and recruitment...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học quốc tế cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: "A statistical approach to estimating the strength of cell-cell interactions under the differential adhesion hypothesis
Leukocytes constantly patrol the vascular system in
order to react promptly to infections when and where
it is necessary. To fulfil this task, the cells have to
enter secondary lymphoid organs and to emigrate into
inflamed tissues, which requires them to cross the bar-rier of endothelial cells that line blood vessels.
Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process involving many different cell types that must proliferate, migrate, invade, and differentiate in response to signals from the tumor microenvironment. Endothelial cells (ECs) sprout from host vessels in response to VEGF, bFGF, Ang2, and other proangiogenic stimuli. Sprouting is stimulated by VEGF/VEGFR2, Ang2/Tie-2, and integrin/extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions.
Anemia occurs in ~80% of myeloma patients. It is usually normocytic and normochromic and related both to the replacement of normal marrow by expanding tumor cells and to the inhibition of hematopoiesis by factors made by the tumor. In addition, mild hemolysis may contribute to the anemia. A larger than expected fraction of patients may have megaloblastic anemia due to either folate or vitamin B12 deficiency. Granulocytopenia and thrombocytopenia are very rare.
Some limited understanding of self-renewal exists and, intriguingly, implicates gene products that are associated with the chromatin state, a high-order organization of chromosomal DNA that influences transcription. These include members of the polycomb family, a group of zinc finger–containing transcriptional regulators that interact with the chromatin structure, contributing to the accessibility of groups of genes for transcription.
Oncogene signaling pathways are activated during tumor progression and promote metastatic potential.
This figure shows a cancer cell that has undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) under the influence of several environmental signals. Critical components include activated transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met pathways, as well as changes in the expression of adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell and cellextracellular matrix interactions.
Cells respond to environmental cues through a complex and dynamic
network of signaling pathways that normally maintain a critical balance
between cellular proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death. One
current research challenge is to identify those aberrations in signal transduction
that directly contribute to a loss of this division-limited equilibrium and
the progression to malignant transformation. The study of cell-signaling molecules
in this context is a central component of cancer research.
CD91 plays an important role in the scavenging of apoptotic material, pos-sibly through binding to soluble pattern-recognition molecules. In this
study, we investigated the interaction of CD91 with mannan-binding lectin
(MBL), ficolins and lung surfactant proteins. Both MBL and L-ficolin were
found to bind CD91. The MBL–CD91 interaction was time- and concentra-tion-dependent and could be inhibited by known ligands of CD91.
arco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA)2b maintains the
homeostasis by transferring Ca
from the cytosol to the
lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recently, SERCA2b has also
been shown to be involved in the biosynthesis of secreted and membrane
proteins via direct protein–protein interactions, involving components of
the ER folding and quality-control machinery, as well as newly synthesized
G protein-coupled receptors.
Inflammation is traditionally viewed as a physiological reaction to tissue
injury. Leukocytes contribute to the inflammatory response by the secretion
of cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory compounds, by phagocytotic activity
and by targeted attack of foreign antigens. Leukocyte accumulation in tis-sues is important for the initial response to injury.
Histidine-containing protein (HPr) is a central metabolic sensor in low-GC
Gram-positive bacteria and plays a dual role in sugar uptake by the phos-phoenolpyruvate–sugar phosphotransferase system and in transcriptional
control during carbon catabolite repression. The latter process is mediated
by interaction between HPr and the carbon catabolite repression master
transcription regulator, carbon catabolite protein A (CcpA), a member of
the LacI-GalR family of DNA-binding proteins.
Conformational changes in the calpain molecule following interaction with
natural ligands can be monitored by the binding of a specific monoclonal
antibody directed against the catalytic domain of the protease. None of
these conformational states showed catalytic activity and probably repre-sent intermediate forms preceding the active enzyme state.
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an inherited disease in which cells from
patients exhibit defects in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP proteins
A–G are crucial in the processes of DNA damage recognition and incision,
and patients with XP can carry mutations in any of the genes that specify
RasGRF is a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors with dual spe-cificity for both Ras and Rac GTPases. In this study, using mouse brain
extracts, we show that both RasGRF1 and RasGRF2 interact with micro-tubules in an in vitro microtubule assembly system and this binding is very
tight. To characterize this association, recombinant purified proteins con-taining different regions of RasGRF1 were tested for their ability to bind
microtubules preassembled from pure tubulin.
While many antibodies with strong antigen-binding affinity have stable
variable regions with a strong antibody heavy chain variable region frag-ment (VH)⁄antibody light chain variable region fragment (VL) interaction,
the anti-lysozyme IgG HyHEL-10 has a fairly strong affinity, yet a very
weak VH⁄VLinteraction strength, in the absence of antigen.
The interaction of the homeodomain of the sunflower KNOX protein
HAKN1 with DNA was studied by site-directed mutagenesis, hydroxyl
radical footprinting and missing nucleoside experiments. Binding of
HAKN1 to different oligonucleotides indicated that HAKN1 prefers the
sequence TGACA (TGTCA), with changes within the GAC core more pro-foundly affecting the interaction. Footprinting and missing nucleoside
experiments using hydroxyl radical cleavage of DNA showed that HAKN1
interacts with a 6-bp region of the strand carrying the GAC core, covering
the core and nucleotides towards the 3¢ end....