In recognition of the fact that the potential for release of particulate
plutonium and transplutonium alpha-emitting elements from nuclear
power generation facilities poses questions concerning spatial distribution
of dose and the resultant biological effects, the NCRP initiated a
new NCRP activity concerned with alpha-emitting particles in lungs.
It was not intended that a complete review of the subject would be prepared.
“RELIGION,” wrote Jawaharlal Nehru from a prison cell in 1944,
“though it has undoubtedly brought comfort to innumerable human beings
and stabilized society by its values, has checked the tendency to
change and progress inherent in human society.”1 About a century earlier,
Alexis de Tocqueville, after traversing the United States to examine its
prison system, instead reflected on the place of religion in democracy.
Sickle Cell Syndromes The sickle cell syndromes are caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene that changes the sixth amino acid from glutamic acid to valine. HbS (α2β26 Glu→Va1) polymerizes reversibly when deoxygenated to form a gelatinous network of fibrous polymers that stiffen the RBC membrane, increase viscosity, and cause dehydration due to potassium leakage and calcium influx (Fig. 99-3). These changes also produce the sickle shape. Sickled cells lose the pliability needed to traverse small capillaries.