Xem 1-20 trên 37 kết quả Cell vehicles
  • Hydrogen fuel cells are one of the most promising alternatives to internal combustion engine hybrids and pure battery electric power for propelling passenger vehicles. Compared to internal combustion engine hybrid vehicles burning hydrocarbon fuels, fuel cell vehicles offer three primary advantages. First, the fuel cell system produces no tank-to-wheel carbon dioxide emissions and no other harmful emissions such as oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, or particulates. Second, the fuel cell system offers the potential for approximately 30% higher well-to-wheel energy efficiency.

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  • A look on energy, renewable energies, energy storage and synthetic fuels, hybrid architecture, fuel cells, hydrogen as a vector of energy of the future.The Earth resources are quite limited in quantity Many challenges to mankind in 21st century: development, health, water, food, demography, education, energy.In physics, energy (Ancient Greek: ἐνέργεια energeia "activity, operation"[1]) is a quantity that is often understood as the ability a physical system has to produce changes on another physical system.

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  • ....CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group 6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300 Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742 © 2010 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLC CRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business No claim to original U.S. Government works Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 International Standard Book Number: 978-1-4200-5398-2 (Hardback) This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources.

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  • The recent fuel cell (FC) development worldwide has always been accompanied by a number of studies and projects investigating the applications of FCs onboard ships. Almost all possible FC types and different fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas (liquefied or pressurized), liquefied pressurized gas (LPG), methanol, and maritime diesel have been considered. These applications of FCs are still mainly focused on onboard power generation (OPU) and propulsion.

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  • The Workshop on Energy and Transportation took place on January 7-9, 2002, in Washington, DC. This workshop was the second in a series of workshops that comprise the study Challenges in the Chemical Sciences in the 21st Century. The purpose of this study was to carry out a survey of the current status of the chemical sciences, including chemistry and chemical engineering, and its interfaces with other disciplines such as mechanical engineering, physics, materials science, and the biological sciences.

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  • This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may...

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  • The problems associated with the frenetic combustion of fossil fuels are many: pollution, global warming, and foreseeable exhaustion of resources, among others. Although difficult to estimate, the costs associated with these problems are huge and indirect,8 and may be financial, human, or both. Costs induced by pollution include, but are not limited to, health expenses, the cost of replanting forests devastated by acid rain, and the cost of cleaning and fixing monuments corroded by acid rain. Health expenses probably represent the largest share of these costs, especially in developed...

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  • As I write this in the year 2002 electric vehicles (EVs) are practically irrelevant for road transport (Figure 10.1). In the year 2000 there were 109 electric cars registered in Germany out of 3,378,343 total (0.003%). Why do we talk about EVs at all? Electricity is widely used in nearly all industrial and private areas because it can be converted easily into heat, light, and motion and runs all electric devices. Electricity is convenient, clean where it is used, and economical.

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  • Discussions about the future of transportation are marked by three key factors À growing energy demand and energy security on the one side and climate change and environmental protection on the other. The word that is most often used to embody all these concerns is ‘sustainability’ or, in the field of transportation, ‘sustainable mobility’. Achieving sustainable mobility is the big challenge for the future in the vehicle and associated industries. It is now common wisdom that transport based on fossil resources is a finite proposition.

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  • As a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) can be started instantly at ambient temperatures and can work with air as oxidant without carbon dioxide problems, it is so far the most viable fuel cell (FC) system that has the potential to replace internal combustion engines (ICEs) and batteries for transportation applications to power cars, buses, and personal electric vehicles (PEVs). This article focuses on the application of this technology for light traction vehicles, such as scooters, bicycles, forklifts, wheelchairs, and tour carts. ...

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  • This article concerns the rationale, history, principal issues, and potential of fuel cell-powered rail vehicles. Issues include fuel cell type, hydrogen storage, special factors affecting fuel cell rail, and the question of which rail applications are appropriate for hybrid powertrains. It concludes with a brief discussion of a supersonic concept vehicle, a cross between a train and an airplane that operates in a hydrogen-filled tube and levitates on a gas film, thereby overcoming an inherent efficiency limitation of aircraft. ...

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  • The design, construction and testing of valve-regulated lead/acid cells with grid designs optimised for high-rate partial state-of-charge cycling for hybrid electric vehicles are described. Computer modelling was used to develop the grid designs. This showed that designs with opposed tabs and terminals on the top and bottom of the cell were likely to have the best performance not only in terms of grid conductivity but also for uniformity.

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  • This book provides an insight for students, researchers and practitioners on the area of vehicular communications explaining and presenting solutions for some of the most critical issues in this field and, hopefully, inspiring new research directions. The book is organized in Sections, which respond to different layers and aspects of the vehicular technology: infrastructures, cells deployment and its integration with the V2V part, access procedures, advanced services and applications as localization, spectrum sensing, relay-based cooperative networks....

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  • But we need a sustained effort, which is why the President set an ambitious goal that by 2015 we would have 1 million electric vehicles on the road, becoming the world’s leader in advance vehicle technologies. To help reach this goal, the President is proposing bold steps to improve the efficiency of all modes of transportation, from air to highways to rail to water, and to develop alternative fuels. He is continuing to push forward on fuel economy standards for cars and trucks. He has proposed to speed the adoption of electric vehicles with new more...

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  • The speci c robotic system considered is a vehicle whose kinematic model approximates the mobility of a car. The con guration of this robot is repre- sented by the position and orientation of its main body in the plane, and by the angle of the steering wheels. Two velocity inputs are available for motion control. This situation covers in a realistic way many of the existing robotic vehicles. Moreover, the car-like robot is the simplest nonholonomic vehicle that displays the general characteristics and the dicult maneuverability of higher- dimensional systems, e.g.

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  • This should consider that premiums reflect both the first party costs (generally damage to the driver’s own vehicle) and third party costs (generally damage to property outside of the driver’s vehicle and injury costs for people outside of the vehicle although it will, of course, include injury costs for passengers in the driver’s vehicle where the driver is at fault). These new technologies, therefore, need to be able to reduce the casualty rate and the level of severity of collisions.

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  • Some insurers have research units and can advise manufacturers and other organizations of theft trends and vulnerabilities of various vehicles to theft. The Coalition Against Insurance Fraud’s public awareness campaign includes airbag theft and works with legislators to address insurance fraud issues. The National Insurance Crime Bureau has brought together insurers and law enforcement agencies to facilitate identification, detection and prosecution of auto theft-related insurance fraud.

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  • It follows that a central question for policy makers is whether avoiding this growth is possible or desirable. A number of unknown but controversial factors affect this question, including whether growth rates of car use and those of car ownership are necessarily the same, and the extent to which transport activity drives economic growth, rather than being an indicator of it.

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  • Car-sharing brings a broad range of social and environmental benefits for members, non-members and the wider community. In short, it can help make communities more vibrant, attractive, and less dependent on the private automobile, and contribute to a range of transportation, housing, eco- nomic development and social justice goals. Some of the most notable benefits include: leSS land needed for parking. Car-sharing is a proven strategy to reduce the demand for parking.

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  • Gesture is the vehicle used in fitting a character into the role it is called upon to act out. We have drawn variously, dogs, mice, owls, elephants, cats, people, and so on; each distinct characters with distinct bodily shapes and bodily gestures. To approach a model with the idea of copying a human figure plus its clothing could be called a waste of time. Our interest is in seeing the differences in each personality and their individualistic gestures and, like a good caricaturist, capture the essence of those differences.

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