Sự phát sinh mô sẹo từ nuôi cấy lớp mỏng tế bào mảnh lá (transverse Thin Cell Layer tTCL) ở cây hồ tiêu đã được ghi nhận. Sự phát sinh cơ quan chồi từ nuôi cấy mô sẹo có nguồn gốc từ nuôi cấy tTCL mảnh lá đã được mô tả. Những đám tế bào chưa phân hóa trong khối mô sẹo được hình thành từ nuôi cấy tTCL có nguồn gốc tế bào nhu mô của mô thịt lá qua nuôi cấy tTCL đã được định hướng thành những cơ quan đỉnh sinh trưởng và chồi hoàn chỉnh....
As populations increase and countries industrialize, the world’s
demand for energy increases. Our supply of petroleum and gas is limited,
but the photovoltaic cell offers a solution to the problem of a future energy
shortage. This cell is already an important source of energy. In fact, it seems
almost like magic. The photovoltaic cell changes sunlight directly into
energy. Solar energy – energy from the sun – is clean, easily available,
inexhaustible, and free, if the equipment is available....
Fuel cells are an important technology for a potentially wide variety of applications including
micropower, auxiliary power, transportation power, stationary power for buildings and other
distributed generation applications, and central power. These applications will be in a large
number of industries worldwide.
Culture of Cells for Tissue Engineering is a new volume in the John Wiley series
Culture of Specialized Cells, with focus on procedures for obtaining, manipulating,
and using cell sources for tissue engineering. The book has been designed to follow
the successful tradition of other Wiley books from the same series, by selecting a
limited number of diverse, important, and successful tissue engineering systems and
providing both the general background and the detailed protocols for each tissue
This is the first book to cover the history, structure, and application of atomic force microscopy in cell biology. Presented in the clear, well-illustrated style of the Methods in Cell Biology series, it introduces the atomic force microscope (AFM) to its readers and enables them to tap the power and scope of this technology to further their own research. A practical laboratory guide for use of the atomic force and photonic force microscopes, it provides updated technology and methods in force spectroscopy.
Tissue culture was first devised at the beginning of the
twentieth century [Harrison, 1907; Carrel, 1912] (Table 1.1)
as a method for studying the behavior of animal cells free
of systemic variations that might arise in vivo both during
normal homeostasis and under the stress of an experiment.
As the name implies, the technique was elaborated first
with undisaggregated fragments of tissue, and growth was
restricted to the migration of cells from the tissue fragment,
with occasional mitoses in the outgrowth.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 66. Stem Cell Biology
Stem Cell Biology: Introduction
Stem cell biology is a relatively new field that explores the characteristics and possible clinical applications of the different types of pluripotential cells that serve as the progenitors of more differentiated cell types. In addition to potential therapeutic applications (Chap. 67), patient-derived stem cells can also provide disease models and a means to test drug effectiveness.
Therefore, ex vivo expansion of BMSCs is required to obtain a
sufficient number of transplantable cells. Since BMSCs require several kinds of supportive
factors for their growth, it is standard practice to use fetal bovine serum (FBS), while
autologous human serum (HS) and pooled allogeneic HS have also been used. It has been
suggested that FBS may not be favorable for clinical applications due to the possible risk of
contamination (prions, viruses, zoonosis) or immunological reactions against xenogeneic
serum antigens (Agata et al., 2009).
When fuel cells were first suggested and discussed back in the nineteenth century,
it was firmly hoped that distinctly higher efficiencies could be attained with them
when converting the chemical energy of natural fuels to electric power. Now
that the world supply of fossil fuels is seen to be finite, this hope turns into
a need, into a question of maintaining advanced standards of life.
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 67. Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine
Applications of Stem Cell Biology in Clinical Medicine: Introduction Organ damage and the resultant inflammatory responses initiate a series of repair processes, including stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, often in combination with angiogenesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Endogenous stem cells in tissues such as liver and skin have a remarkable ability to regenerate the organs, whereas heart and brain have a much more limited capability for self-repair.
After the first edition published in 2007 that became a best seller, the continuous scientific
developments in the field have prompted us to produce the second edition of this book. As it
happens in life and science, some of the novel and promising data presented in the first edition
have been confirmed, some not, and new breakthrough achievements have been accomplished.
Stem Cells in Reproductive Medicine, Basic Science and Therapeutic Potential, second edition,
updates the revolutionary advances in stem cell science that may potentially impact on human
Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 68. Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Introduction All of the cell types in the peripheral blood and some cells in every tissue of the body are derived from hematopoietic (hemo: blood; poiesis: creation) stem cells. If the hematopoietic stem cell is damaged and can no longer function (e.g., due to the nuclear accident at Chernobyl), a person would survive 2–4 weeks in the absence of extraordinary support measures. With the clinical use of hematopoietic stem cells, tens of thousands of lives are saved each year (Chap. 108).
This volume is the first book-length survey of caveolae and lipid rafts. Interest has
developed rapidly in the role of these surface microdomains in such diverse fields
as transmembrane signaling, cell locomotion, vascular relaxation, senescence, and
the uptake and exit from cells of viruses and bacteria. Individual chapters in this
volume cover areas as diverse as the forces that induce and maintain membrane
invaginations, and the clinical relevance of multiprotein complexes at the cell surface,
defects in which are associated with cancer, and Alzheimer’s and prion-dependent
Stem cell research has the potential to affect the lives of millions
of people in the United States and around the world.
This research is now regularly front-page news because of the
controversy surrounding the derivation of stem cells from
human embryos. Realizing the promise of stem cells for
yielding new medical therapies will require us to grapple with
more than just scientific uncertainties. The stem cell debate
has led scientists and nonscientists alike to contemplate
profound issues, such as who we are and what makes us
Self-Renewal and Proliferation of Stem Cells
Symmetric and Asymmetric Cell Division
The most widely accepted stem cell definition is a cell with a unique capacity to produce unaltered daughter cells (self-renewal) and to generate specialized cell types (potency). Self-renewal can be achieved in two ways. Asymmetric cell division produces one daughter cell that is identical to the parental cell and one daughter cell that is different from the parental cell and is a progenitor or differentiated cell. Asymmetric cell division does not increase the number of stem cells.
Diabetes Mellitus The success of islet cell and pancreas transplantation provides proof of concept for a cell-based approach for type I diabetes. However, the demand for donor pancreata far exceeds the number available, and maintenance of long-term graft survival remains a problem. The search for a renewable source of stem cells capable of regenerating pancreatic islets has therefore been intensive.
Pancreatic βcell turnover occurs in the normal pancreas, although the source of the new βcells is controversial.
Cell membranes act as barriers to most, but not all, molecules. The development of a cell membrane that could allow some materials to pass while constraining the movement of other molecules was a major step in the evolution of the cell. Cell membranes are differentially (or semi-) permeable barriers separating the inner cellular environment from the outer cellular (or external) environment.
The book Cell Interaction focuses on various processes that occur within and outside the cells. Cell interactions are important for functioning of many organ systems: cell adhesion, tissue development, cellular communication, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and microbial infection. Key features include developmental cell interactions, immune and neural cell interactions, cell interactions in normal and disease conditions and advanced level methods to evaluate cell interactions.
Strategies for Stem Cell Replacement Stem cell transplantation is not a new concept and it is already part of established medical practice. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) (Chap. 68) are responsible for the long-term repopulation of all blood elements in bone marrow transplant recipients. HSC transplantation is now the gold standard against which other stem cell transplantation therapies will be measured. Transplantation of differentiated cells is also a clinical reality, as donated organs (e.g., liver, kidney) and tissues (i.e.