Cellular anatomy

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  • In this 3rd edition of Anatomy, Histology, and Cell Biology: PreTest Self-Assessment and Review, a significant number of changes and improvements have been made. This PreTest reviews all of the anatomical disciplines encompassing early embryology, cell biology, histology of the tissues and organs, as well as regional human anatomy of the head and neck, thorax, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and spine. This edition represents a comprehensive effort to integrate the anatomical disciplines with clinical scenarios and cases.

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  • Ebook "Schaum's Outline of Theory and Problems of Human Anatomy and Physiology" introduction to the human body, cellular chemistry, cell structure and function, tissues, integumentary system, skeletal system, muscle tissue and mode of contraction, muscular system, nervous tissue, central nervous system, peripheral and autonomic nervous system,... Invite you to refer to the ebook content more learning materials and research.

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  • Understanding the concepts presented in this chapter will enable the student to: 1. Describe the function of the following cellular components of cardiac myocytes: sarcolemma, intercalated disks, transverse (T)-tubules, myofibrils, myofilaments, sarcomeres, sarcoplasmic reticulum, and terminal cisternae. 2. Describe the composition of thick and thin myofilaments in cardiac myocytes. 3. Describe the significance of a functional syncytium within the heart. 4.

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  • Nearly a decade elapsed between publication of the second and third editions of Basic Medical Endocrinology due in large part to the turmoil in the publishing industry brought on by massive consolidation.Although this edition is new and the publisher is new, the aims of earlier editions of this work are unchanged. Its focus remains human endocrinology with an emphasis on cellular and molecular mechanisms presented in the context of integration of body functions.

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  • The eleventh edition welcomes the new Millenium. Progress in basic and clinical hepatology remains exponential. Since 1997, the advances have been wideranging, with those in molecular and cellular biology, and in diagnosis and treatment, leading the way. In a world in which information technology gives all too ready access to individual publications, the eleventh edition sets the new within established knowledge and practice.

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  • Theoretical analysis and computational modeling are important tools for characterizing what nervous systems do, determining how they function, and understanding why they operate in particular ways. Neuroscience encompasses approaches ranging from molecular and cellular studies to human psychophysics and psychology. Theoretical neuroscience encourages cross-talk among these sub-disciplines by constructing compact representations of what has been learned, building bridges between different levels of description, and identifying unifying concepts and principles.

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  • So ended the editorial entitled “Some Speculations on the Myeloproliferative Syndomes” published in Blood in 1951 by the journal editor, William Dameshek. He speculated that these various conditions, which he had termed “myeloproliferative,” were all somewhat variable manifestations of proliferative activity of the bone marrow cells, perhaps due to “a hitherto undiscovered stimulus.

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  • With this fi rst edition of First Aid for the Basic Sciences: General Principles, we continue our commitment to providing students with the most useful and upto- date preparation guides for the USMLE Step 1. Both this text and its companion, First Aid for the Basic Sciences: Organ Systems, are designed to fi ll the need for a high-quality, in-depth, conceptually driven study guide for Step 1 of the USMLE. They are designed to be used either alone, or in conjunction with the original First Aid for the USMLE Step 1.

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  • Improved understanding of carcinogenesis has allowed cancer prevention and early detection (also known as cancer control) to expand beyond the identification and avoidance of carcinogens. Specific interventions to prevent cancer in those at risk, and more sensitive and specific screening for early detection of cancer are the goals. Carcinogenesis is not simply an event but a process, a continuum of discrete cellular changes over time resulting in more autonomous cellular processes.

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  • Cancer arises through a series of somatic alterations in DNA that result in unrestrained cellular proliferation. Most of these alterations involve actual sequence changes in DNA (i.e., mutations). They may arise as a consequence of random replication errors, exposure to carcinogens (e.g., radiation), or faulty DNA repair processes. While most cancers arise sporadically, familial clustering of cancers occurs in certain families that carry a germline mutation in a cancer gene.

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  • Mycoplasmas, the smallest free-living organisms known, are prokaryotes that are bounded only by a plasma membrane. Their lack of a cell wall is associated with cellular pleomorphism and resistance to cell wall–active antimicrobial agents, such as penicillins and cephalosporins. The organisms' small genome limits biosynthesis and explains the difficulties encountered with in vitro cultivation. Mycoplasmas typically colonize mucosal surfaces of the respiratory and urogenital tracts of many animal species. Of the 17 species of mycoplasmas recovered from humans, most are commensals. ...

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  • All living cells require metabolic substrates (e.g., oxygen, amino acids, glucose) and a mechanism by which they can remove byproducts of metabolism (e.g., carbon dioxide, lactic acid). Single-cell organisms exchange these substances directly with their environment through diffusion and cellular transport systems. In contrast, most cells of large organisms have limited or no exchange capacity with their environment because their cells are not in contact with the outside environment.

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  • Previous chapters emphasized physiologic concepts concerning cardiac and vascular function at the cellular and organ level. In addition, they examined mechanisms, such as baroreceptors and circulating hormones, that regulate overall cardiovascular function. This chapter integrates all the components of the cardiovascular system and shows how they work together to maintain normal perfusion of organs under conditions of increased organ demand for blood flow (e.g., during exercise and pregnancy) or during abnormal stressful conditions such as hemorrhage....

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  • The Simulation Dashboard is a tool which is present in the Visual Studio SDK It allows you to configure the environment that the emulator runs in You can test how an application responds to poor/no network or cellular access

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  • Despite its clinical importance, a dearth of information exists on the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin brain stem death. A suitable neural substrate for mechanistic delineation on brain stem death resides in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) because it is the origin of a life-and-death signal that sequentially increases (pro-life) and decreases (pro-death) to reflect the advancing central cardiovascular regulatory dysfunction during the progression towards brain stem death in critically ill patients.

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  • Chapter 045. Azotemia and Urinary Abnormalities Normal kidney functions occur through numerous cellular processes to maintain body homeostasis. Disturbances in any of these functions can lead to a constellation of abnormalities that may be detrimental to survival. The clinical manifestations of these disorders will depend upon the pathophysiology of the renal injury and will often be initially identified as a complex of symptoms, abnormal physical findings, and laboratory changes that together make possible the identification of specific syndromes.

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  • The calcium ion plays a critical role in normal cellular function and signaling, regulating diverse physiologic processes such as neuromuscular signaling, cardiac contractility, hormone secretion, and blood coagulation. Thus, extracellular calcium concentrations are maintained within an exquisitely narrow range through a series of feedback mechanisms that involve parathyroid hormone (PTH) and the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitmin D [1,25(OH)2D]. These feedback mechanisms are orchestrated by integrating signals between the parathyroid glands, kidney, intestine, and bone (Fig.

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  • The megaloblastic anemias are a group of disorders characterized by the presence of distinctive morphologic appearances of the developing red cells in the bone marrow. The cause is usually deficiency of either cobalamin (vitamin B12) or folate, but megaloblastic anemia may arise because of genetic or acquired abnormalities affecting the metabolism of these vitamins or because of defects in DNA synthesis not related to cobalamin or folate (Table 100-1).

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  • The study of red blood cell (RBC) antigens and antibodies forms the foundation of transfusion medicine. Serologic studies initially characterized these antigens, but now the molecular composition and structure of many are known. Antigens, either carbohydrate or protein, are assigned to a blood group system based on the structure and similarity of the determinant epitopes. Other cellular blood elements and plasma proteins are also antigenic and can result in alloimmunization, the production of antibodies directed against the blood group antigens of another individual.

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  • The fact that there is a reciprocal relation between mental states and bodily conditions, acting both for good and ill, is nothing new in human experience. Even among the most crude and unobserving, traditions and incidents have given witness to this knowledge. For centuries stories of the hair turning white during the night on account of fright or sorrow, the cause and cure of diseases through emotional disturbances, and death, usually directly by apoplexy, caused by anger, grief, or joy, have been current and generally accepted.

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