Cellular functions

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  • In this series of four minireviews the field of scaffold proteins and proteins of similar molecular⁄cellular functions is overviewed. By binding and bring-ing into proximity two or more signaling proteins, these proteins direct the flow of information in the cell by activating, coordinating and regulating signaling events in regulatory networks.

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  • TDP-43 (transactive response binding protein of 43 kDa) and FUS (fused in sarcoma) comprise the neuropathological protein aggregates of distinct subtypes of the neurodegenerative diseases frontotemporal lobar degen-eration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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  • The nuclear pore complex (NPC) is the only gateway for molecular traf-ficking across the nuclear envelope. The NPC is not merely a static nuclear-cytoplasmic transport gate; the functional analysis of nucleoporins has revealed dynamic features of the NPC in various cellular functions, such as mitotic spindle formation and protein modification.

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  • The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago. Since then, KH domains have been identified as nucleic acid recognition motifs in proteins that perform a wide range of cellular functions.

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  • Oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, hyperglycemia-induced glycations and environmental exposures increase the cellular concentrations of aldehydes. A novel aspect of the molecular actions of aldehydes, e.g. acetaldehyde and acrolein, is their reaction with the cysteine ligands of zinc sites in proteins and concomitant zinc release.

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  • The polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine are organic cations shown to participate in a bewildering num-ber of cellular reactions, yet their exact functions in inter-mediary metabolism and specific interactions with cellular components remain largely elusive. Pharmacological inter-ventions have demonstrated convincingly that a steady supply of these compounds is a prerequisite for cell prolif-eration to occur.

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  • In human neutrophils, both changes in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations, [Ca 2+ ] i , and activation of phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase (PtdIns3K) have been proposed to play a role in regulating cellular function induced by chemoattr-actants. In this studywe have investigated the role of [Ca 2+ ] i and its effector molecule calmodulin in human neutrophils.

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  • Chapter 6 - A tour of the cell. This chapter distinguish between the following pairs of terms: magnification and resolution, prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, free and bound ribosomes, smooth and rough ER; describe the structure and function of the components of the endomembrane system; briefly explain the role of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes;...

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  • Chapter 4 - Cell structure and function. After studying this chapter, you should be able to accomplish the following outcomes: Cite the three tenets of the cell theory; explain why cells are so small; describe the structure of the prokaryotic cell in terms of the cell envelope, cytoplasm, and appendages; give a function for each structure;...

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  • Salinity stress negatively impacts agricultural yield throughout the world affecting production whether it is for subsistence or economic gain. The plant response to salinity consists of numerous processes that must function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. In addition, crop plants must be capable of satisfactory biomass production in a saline environment (yield stability).

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  • We are very pleased to launch the 23rd edition of Ganong's Review of Medical Physiology . The current authors have attempted to maintain the highest standards of excellence, accuracy, and pedagogy developed by Fran Ganong over the 46 years in which he educated countless students worldwide with this textbook. At the same time, we have been attuned to the evolving needs of both students and professors in medical physiology.

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  • If one asks what neuroscience is, the answer can be found in this book. Neuroscience embraces not only anatomical and physiological studies but also cell biology, computer science, and biochemistry. Equally important for neuroscientific research are other disciplines, such as psychology, psychiatry, neurology and additional recent ones, such as neuroeconomics and social neuroscience. This book comprises chapters on diverse topics in neuroscience ranging from cellular, computational, cognitive, and clinical neuroscience.

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  • Telomeres, located at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genome stability and integrity. Advances in telomere researches have linked telomere dysfunction with cellular aging and a number of age-related human diseases. Recent studies further expanded our knowledge of telomere functions - telomeres are shown to be important for microbial pathogen virulence and telomere proteins have important non-telomeric cellular functions.

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  • This book presents basic and advanced principles underlying the multivalent interactions that are prevalent in biological systems. To illustrate important or complex concepts, the book provides up-to-date examples of synthetic multivalent molecules, their design, and their biological benefits. Functional roles displayed by such molecules of both natural and synthetic origin are well documented in biology, where they exert unique and crucial activities at a level not readily achievable by monovalent molecules.

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  • This book distils years of work on the mobile telecommunications industry. I became interested in this industry for professional reasons during the mid-1990s, a period when the industry was making the jump from a premium service industry for mostly professional users to a truly mass market. In my capacity as an applied industrial organisation economist, I had the unique opportunity of evaluating the business plans and strategies of a large number of mobile telecommunications firms inside and outside Europe.

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  • Skeletal muscle contractions power human body movements and are essential for maintaining stability. Skeletal muscle tissue accounts for almost half of the human body mass and, in addition to its power-generating role, is a crucial factor in maintaining homeostasis. Given its central role in human mobility and metabolic function, any deterioration in the contractile, material, and metabolic properties of skeletal muscle has an extremely important effect on human health.

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  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) represents a complex organization of macromolecules that surrounds the cell and comprises the substratum onto which the cell may be attached. The properties and functions of the ECM depend ultimately on its structure, molecular components, architecture, and dynamic modulation. Because the critical role of ECM involved in cell biology and physiology has long been recognized, the structure and biology of the ECM have been extensively studied (Yurchenco and Birk 1994 ; Ayad et al. 1998 ; Robert 2001 ) .

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  • Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, arrangements and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments.

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  • Effective new treatments of heart disease are based on a refined understanding of cellular function and the heart's response to environmental stresses. Not surprisingly therefore, the field of experimental cardiology has experienced a phase of rapid exponential growth during the last decade. The acquisition of new knowledge has been so fast that textbooks of cardiology or textbooks of cardiovascular physiology are often hard-pressed to keep up with the most important conceptual advances.

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  • Senescence is a biological process that causes a progressive deterioration of structure and function of all organs chronologically. Recent studies have revealed the detailed molecular mechanisms of senescence using cell culture system and experimental organisms. It is thought that senescence is a potential cause for the development of various age-related disorders such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

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