Central pathways

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  • The last decade or so has seen remarkable advances in our knowledge of cough. This applies especially to its basic mechanisms: the types of airway sensors, the pharmacological receptors on their membranes, the brainstem organization of the ‘cough centre’, and the involvement of the cerebral cortex in the sensations and the voluntary control of cough. With the exception of the last of these, nearly all the studies have been on experimental animals rather than humans, for obvious reasons.

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  • During the last decades, numerous studies about stem cells and regenerative medicine highlighted new therapeutic approaches to treat several neurological disorders. It is noteworthy that the current optimism over potential stem cell therapies is driven by new understandings of stem cell biology leading to specific cell fate decision.

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  • Toppling Falls Some patients maintain tone in antigravity muscles but fall over like a tree trunk, as if postural defenses had disengaged. There may be a consistent direction to such falls. The patient with cerebellar pathology may lean and topple over toward the side of the lesion. Patients with lesions of the vestibular system or its central pathways may experience lateral pulsion and toppling falls. Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy often fall over backwards. Falls of this nature occur in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease once postural instability has developed.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về y học đề tài: Science review: Key inflammatory and stress pathways in critical illness – the central role of the Toll-like receptors...

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  • One authorized urologist (M.M.) performed all the operations. We used a standard TURP setup with an irrigation pressure of 80 cmH2O and an irrigation rate of 250 ml/min using D-sorbitol solution. After a rough resection of almost all the transition and central zone, we tried to resect and fulgurate the peripheral zone as completely as possible, especially where cancer was detected by biopsy. The resection was continued until adipose tissue, venous sinus or the external sphincter was identified.

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  • This book, with its 16 chapters, documents the present state of knowledge of the adenosine A3 receptor. It covers a wide range of information, including data from studies of theoretical, molecular and cellular pharmacology, signal transduction, integrative physiology, new drug discoveries and clinical applications. It fills an important gap in the literature since no alternative source of such information is currently available.

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  • A central pathway through which leptin acts to regulate appetite and body weight. Leptin signals through proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the hypothalamus to induce increased production of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), requiring the processing enzyme PC-1 (proenzyme convertase 1). α-MSH acts as an agonist on melanocortin-4 receptors to inhibit appetite, and the neuropeptide AgRp (Agouti-related peptide) acts as an antagonist of this receptor. Mutations that cause obesity in humans are indicated by the solid green arrows.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học quốc tế đề tài : Central America Field Epidemiology Training Program (CA FETP): a pathway to sustainable public health capacity development

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  • Across evolution, the signal recognition particle pathway targets extra-cytoplasmic proteins to membranous trans-location sites. Whereas the pathway has been extensively studied in Eukarya and Bacteria, little is known of this sys-tem in Archaea. In the following, membrane association of FtsY, the prokaryal signal recognition particle receptor, and SRP54, a central component of the signal recognition par-ticle, was addressed in the halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii.

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  • We describehere anovelmethodology for rapiddiagnosis of metabolic changes,which is basedonprobabilistic equations that relate GC-MS-derived mass distributions in proteino-genic aminoacids toin vivoenzyme activities. Thismetabolic flux ratio analysis by GC-MS provides a comprehensive perspective on central metabolism by quantifying 14 ratios of fluxes through converging pathways and reactions from [1-13 C] and [U-13 C]glucose experiments.

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  • Central to the development of glomerular inflammation and injury are alterations and abnormalities of various cytokines and signaling systems. There are four chapters in this book that deal with these aspects in the pathogenesis. The role of TGF-β in progressive glomerular disease is discussed in great detail in a chapter well written by Hyun Soon Lee, with particular reference to mesangial matrix accumulation, while the role of STAT3 activation in glomerulonephritis is elaborated in the well written chapter by Fumio Tsuji et al.

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  • In a book titled Photosynthesis it is easy to forget that light is not simply the energy driving plant metabolism. Light also is the central environmental factor that affects plant size, shape and development. In fact, light activation of photomorphogenic signaling pathways sets the stage for photosynthesis and ensures the maintenance of the apparatus. The effects of specific wavebands of light exert their influence on plant biology from the molecular level all the way up to the higher morphological level, and even contribute to the canopy form as a whole.

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  • Disorders of the Sense of Taste Disorders of the sense of taste are caused by conditions that interfere with the access of the tastant to the receptor cells in the taste bud (transport loss), injure receptor cells (sensory loss), or damage gustatory afferent nerves and central gustatory pathways (neural loss) (Table 30-2). Transport gustatory losses result from xerostomia due to many causes, including Sjögren's syndrome, radiation therapy, heavy-metal intoxication, and bacterial colonization of the taste pore.

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  • Ventral view of the brain, correlating patterns of visual field loss with the sites of lesions in the visual pathway. The visual fields overlap partially, creating 120° of central binocular field flanked by a 40° monocular crescent on either side. The visual field maps in this figure were done with a computer-driven perimeter (Humphrey Instruments, Carl Zeiss, Inc.). It plots the retinal sensitivity to light in the central 30° using a gray scale format. Areas of visual field loss are shown in black.

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  • Approach to the Patient: Disorders of the Sense of Hearing The goal in the evaluation of a patient with auditory complaints is to determine (1) the nature of the hearing impairment (conductive vs. sensorineural vs. mixed), (2) the severity of the impairment (mild, moderate, severe, profound), (3) the anatomy of the impairment (external ear, middle ear, inner ear, or central auditory pathway), and (4) the etiology. The history should elicit characteristics of the hearing loss, including the duration of deafness, unilateral vs. bilateral involvement, nature of onset (sudden vs.

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  • They found that AAV5 and 7-syn-GFP resulted in the highest percentage of nigral dopaminergic neurons transduction, where AAV7 showed the highest efficiency in transducing the nigrostriatal projection pathway. Accordingly, they conclude that AAV7-syn-GFP is the most suitable SN gene delivery vehicle in mice. In the eleventh chapter, Okada et al. developed a new method of producing AAV vectors. They applied these AAV vectors in muscle transduction for the treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In chapter twelve, Sunico et al.

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  • Cells respond to environmental cues through a complex and dynamic network of signaling pathways that normally maintain a critical balance between cellular proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death. One current research challenge is to identify those aberrations in signal transduction that directly contribute to a loss of this division-limited equilibrium and the progression to malignant transformation. The study of cell-signaling molecules in this context is a central component of cancer research.

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  • Disorders of the Sense of Smell These are caused by conditions that interfere with the access of the odorant to the olfactory neuroepithelium (transport loss), injure the receptor region (sensory loss), or damage central olfactory pathways (neural loss). Currently no clinical tests exist to differentiate these different types of olfactory losses. Fortunately, the history of the disease provides important clues to the cause.

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  • Disorders of the Sense of Hearing Hearing loss can result from disorders of the auricle, external auditory canal, middle ear, inner ear, or central auditory pathways (Fig. 30-4). In general, lesions in the auricle, external auditory canal, or middle ear cause conductive hearing losses, whereas lesions in the inner ear or eighth nerve cause sensorineural hearing losses. Figure 30-4 An algorithm for the approach to hearing loss.

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  • Positive and Negative Symptoms Abnormal sensory symptoms may be divided into two categories, positive and negative. The prototypical positive symptom is tingling (pins-and-needles); other positive sensory phenomena include altered sensations that are described as pricking, bandlike, lightning-like shooting feelings (lancinations), aching, knifelike, twisting, drawing, pulling, tightening, burning, searing, electrical, or raw feelings. Such symptoms are often painful.

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